Venezuela - Labour & Employment Lawyers & Law Firms - Latin America - Chambers and Partners
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Latin-America Guide

Labour & Employment — Venezuela


AraqueReyna - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 1

第一等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- Heads of department: Simón Jurado-Blanco and Luis Alfredo Araque
- 5 partners
- 2 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Deeply respected practice at the forefront of the market assisting with a broad array of labour and employment matters. Areas of strength span the negotiation of collective agreements and advocating for clients in judicial and administrative proceedings. Highly adept at consulting on potential labour risks and day-to-day matters, such as labour contracts, wages and benefits. Boasts an impressive client roster of corporate clients hailing from the banking and finance and automotive industries.

Strengths Clients are full of praise for the team and affirm that "the lawyers are of excellent quality. They clearly explain every step that we ought to take, analysing its advantages and disadvantages."

Another source enthuses: "My experience with the firm in labour and employment matters has been 100% positive."

Notable practitioners

Senior statesman Luis Alfredo Araque has over 40 years of experience acting as counsel to clients on labour and employment-related matters. His previous experience comprises collective bargaining mandates as well as consulting on the drafting of several pieces of labour legislation.

Since publication, Simón Jurado-Blanco has joined left the practice.

About the Team (content provided by AraqueReyna)

ARAQUEREYNA’s Labour Law department is one of the most important in the local legal market and stands out for the following reasons: An enviable list of matters, covering virtually every subarea within the Labour Law field. Despite the country’s current economic crisis, our labour law department has led on crucial matters over the last year:

·    Constructora Andrade Gutiérrez and Desarrollos Hoteleros La Castellana (Hotel Cayena) in high-profile disputes involving former executives and personnel, which will set an important precedent.

·    An impressive team, led by one of the most acclaimed Venezuelan labour lawyers, Luis Alfredo Araque.

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Baker McKenzie SC - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 1

第一等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- Head of department: Carlos Felce
- 2 partners
- 7 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Internationally recognised firm offering noteworthy expertise on labour and employment issues, including advice on mass terminations and compliance with Venezuela's labour and social security regulations. Garners recognition for its solid understanding of strategic planning during personnel restructurings, including implementing incentive offerings and compensation packages. The firm also fields a strong practice in labour disputes.

Strengths The firm receives endorsement from observers who note: "The service is excellent. The professionals are highly competent, know the legal environment really well and are very experienced."

Another client states: "The service is of a high quality. The firm's lawyers are responsible and have excellent knowledge of labour matters. They respond quickly and are always available."

Significant clients Eni Venezuela, AstraZeneca Venezuela, Bimbo de Venezuela, Telefónica Venezuela, Orange Business Services.

Notable practitioners

Clients holds Carlos Felce in high esteem, one noting that he is "very accessible, attentive and knowledgeable of the labour and employment arena." Sources go on to add: "I like his proactivity." Felce's areas of particular strength include assisting clients with the labour aspects of corporate restructurings, collective bargaining agreements and hiring and terminations.

Since publication, Gustavo Nieto has joined left the practice.

About the Team (content provided by Baker McKenzie SC)

Department profile not yet provided by Baker McKenzie SC. Please see their firm profile.

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D'Empaire - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 1

第一等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- Heads of department: Alejandro Disilvestro and Victorino Márquez Ferrer
- 2 partners
- 8 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Full-service firm with a market-leading labour and employment practice group. Highly adept at handling mass and executive terminations, collective agreement negotiations and international staff transfers, with additional expertise in advising clients on compensation packages. The firm boasts an impressive client roster including international governmental entities, financial institutions and construction companies.

Strengths Market commentators laud the firm's capabilities in this practice area, noting: "I fully trust the firm's service." They go on to highlight the firm's "fluid relationship with clients, good communication and good feedback management."

One source notes: "This is a solid firm," and goes on to describe it as a point of reference on labour and employment matters.

Work highlights Acted as legal counsel to the Embassy of the United States in Caracas in proceedings initiated by an ex-employee regarding state immunity issues.

Assisted Guardian Industries with a workforce termination in the context of winding up its Venezuelan operations.

Significant clients Fedecámaras, BNP Paribas Venezuela, Citibank Venezuela, Visa, Syngenta.

Notable practitioners

Co-head of department Alejandro Disilvestro is praised by one source as "an expert in this area," with sources going on to mention: "He always looks for the best alternative, taking the local legislation and interests of our company into account. He is attentive, diligent and dedicated, and is also a reliable lawyer. I trust him implicitly for any sort of labour-related advice." His expertise centres on collective bargaining agreements.

Highly revered department co-head Victorino Márquez Ferrer is described by one interviewee as "very versatile, strategic, pragmatic and energetic." They go on to note: "He is always available, good-natured and humble." Márquez Ferrer served as lead partner on the aforementioned work highlight for the Embassy of the United States in Caracas, and also recently advised Citibank of the labour aspects of restructuring its Venezuelan operations.

About the Team (content provided by D'Empaire)

D’Empaire continuously assists clients to reduce litigationrisk and ensure legal compliance under employment law. 

D’Empaire is considered one of the leadingVenezuelan law firms in collective contract negotiations and conflictmanagement with labor unions, as well as in planning for and dealing with workstoppages.  We have extensive experience assisting multinational andVenezuelan companies in their labor disputes.

We advise our clients on workers’ compensation and benefitplans, including executive pay.  We also have extensive experience inemployments contracts terminations and negotiation of settlement agreements.

D´Empaire has substantial litigation experience beforetrial courts, courts of appeals and the Supreme Court on the full range oflabor and employment law matters, including wrongful termination, individualemployment contracts, and workplace accident litigation.

We also assist our clients in the conduction oflabor and employment audits to identify potential sources of laborliabilities as well as supply chain audits to ensure our clientssubcontractor´s compliance with statutory and corporate labor standards. 

Together with the corporate team, our attorneys inthe labor and employment area have assisted clients in connection withdue-diligence reviews and have worked extensively on restructurings and otherlabor issues in connection with M&A, business and financingtransactions.  

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Norton Rose Fulbright - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 1

第一等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- Head of department: Juan Carlos Pró-Rísquez
- 4 partners
- 6 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Highly distinguished team specialising in labour and employment law. Has particular strength representing employers in union negotiations as well as advising clients on mass terminations and restructurings. Also counsels clients on compensation, such as payments in foreign currency, immigration and social security issues. Client roster includes notable players from the automotive, pharmaceutical and energy sectors, as well as financial institutions.

Strengths Market observers endorse the firm, enthusing: "They are one of the most comprehensive firms in labour law in Venezuela. They have a great reputation, are very successful and have a lot of experience of cases in many different industries."

Another interviewee observes: "They are constantly improving their service and are one of the best departments for this sort of work."

Work highlights Successfully defended Mensajero Radio Worldwide against a lawsuit filed by the owner of a contractor claiming labour benefits on the basis of an existing labour relationship with the company. The matter was valued at USD200,000.

Represented Abbott Laboratories in a claim made by ex-employees of the client's contractor seeking recognition as outsourced personnel of the company itself and thus eligible to receive a termination payment.

Significant clients Cigarrera Bigott, Chevron, Schlumberger de Venezuela, Johnson & Johnson, Shell.

Notable practitioners

Star individual Juan Carlos Pró-Rísquez is a revered figure within Venezuela's labour and employment sphere. Impressed interviewees single him out for praise, stating: "He is a clear market leader here" and "I believe that he is the best labour lawyer in Venezuela." He garners further plaudits from market sources, who state: "He is very well respected in labour law" and "he is an outstanding lawyer." Pró-Rísquez has significant experience assisting clients from the oil and gas, pharmaceutical and consumer goods industries.

Esther Cecilia Blondet Serfaty is praised by market observers, who note that she is "a very good and intelligent lawyer" and go on to describe her as "a point of reference" for labour and employment issues. Others highlight her as "a top negotiator." Blondet is a highly experienced litigator and has additional strength negotiating collective bargaining agreements with unions.

Partner Yanet Aguiar "is a very good and diligent lawyer," according to sources. She primarily focuses her practice on labour litigation, whilst also offering advice on social security laws and employee immigration.

Eirys Mata is referred to by peers as "a very good lawyer." Mata is a specialist in labour litigation, though her areas of expertise extend to compensation matters.

About the Team (content provided by Norton Rose Fulbright)

Department profile not yet provided by Norton Rose Fulbright. Please see their firm profile.

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Leĝa Abogados - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 2

第二等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- Heads of department: Pablo Benavente, María Elena Subero and John Tucker
- 5 partners
- 8 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Highly regarded practice group with considerable strength in handling the full range of labour and employment mandates. The team provides assistance with labour audits, layoffs and recruitment processes. Additionally active in contentious matters including collective bargaining with unions. Recent activity includes disputes over commission payments and mass contract terminations.

Strengths One client is full of praise for the firm, commenting: "We feel entirely satisfied and supported by the firm." They go on to state: "Not only do the lawyers meet the expectations and needs of the client, but they go much further. From the receptionist to the most experienced lawyer, the quality of their client service is incredible."

Work highlights Represented Bayer in three lawsuits filed by ex-employees regarding incorrect commission payments. The case is worth USD450,000.

Significant clients Vida Herbal Suplementos Alimenticos, Samsung Electronics de Venezuela, Renault Venezuela, Symrise, Mitsui de Venezuela.

Notable practitioners

Partner Carlos Alberto Henríquez is described by market commentators as "clear and sharp." They go on to mention: "He has profound knowledge of the local legal environment." Henríquez principally focuses his practice on collective bargaining agreements with unions and labour litigation.

Pablo Benavente receives endorsement from sources, who state: "We have a great relationship with him. He has offered us a lot of support and has great knowledge of labour law. The work he does for us is excellent and professional."

María Elena Subero is singled out by clients for being "very emphatic, professional and accessible." She is experienced performing labour audits as well as consulting on the labour aspects of corporate restructurings and employee reductions.

Up-and-coming partner John Tucker is able to advise on executive compensation as well as litigation related to special compensation packages for senior staff. He is also active in handling cross-border employment matters.

Associate-to-watch Natalia De Paz receives praise from clients, with one enthusing: "She is fantastic. I have a very high opinion of her." She is noted for her activity in labour litigation, whilst additionally offering advice on employee terminations.

About the Team (content provided by Leĝa Abogados)

Department profile not yet provided by Leĝa Abogados. Please see their firm profile.

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Littler Mendelson, PC - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 2

第二等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- approximately 4 partners
- approximately 15 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Respected global labour and employment firm with a recognised foothold in the Venezuelan market. Advises on a broad array of matters such as labour reorganisations and employee contract terminations, as well as judicial and administrative labour proceedings. Also counsels on human resources practices, compliance with employment regulations and collective bargaining agreements.

Notable practitioners

Juan Carlos Varela is recognised by peers as "a good labour lawyer." Varela is well placed to advise clients on labour and employment law matters such as labour audits and compensation. He is also noted for his experience handling contentious issues, including labour litigation and arbitration.

Sources note that Liliana Salazar is "a very good lawyer" as well as "a good litigator." Salazar has long-standing experience representing clients in labour trials, and provides further areas of expertise including the termination of high-level executive employees.

Interviewees point to the quality of the legal services provided by partner Ricardo Alonso. He advises on reorganisations and mass employee terminations, as well as the related contentious mandates stemming from such activities.

About the Team (content provided by Littler Mendelson, PC)

Littler is the largest law practice in the world devoted exclusively to representing management in every aspect of labor and employment law, with more than 1,300 attorneys and 75 offices worldwide.
Littler established a reputation over 75 years as one of the leading firms in the United States representing employers and has expanded outside the country to better serve a growing list of international clients. Littler expanded into Latin America when it opened its first international office in Caracas, Venezuela in 2010. Today, Littler is the largest law firm in Venezuela exclusively dedicated to the practice of labor and employment law, with offices in Caracas and Valencia.
Our lawyers in Venezuela practice labor law throughout the country and advise clients on regional matters throughout Latin America. With our collective knowledge, we provide clients with comprehensive legal services covering the full range of workplace issues, including general labor advice, litigation and labor dispute resolution, immigration, executive transfers, negotiation of collective bargaining agreements, union matters, collective conflict resolution, and international employment and labor law.

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Grau García Hernández & Mónaco - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 3

第三等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
Head of department: Luis Alfredo Hernández Merlanti
- 1 partner
- 4 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Noteworthy labour and employment department advising both domestic and international clients on labour claims at administrative and judicial level and collective bargaining agreements. Also offers day-to-day advice to clients hailing from the technology, pharmaceutical and automotive industries.

Strengths One client notes that "the service is very good," whilst others highlight that "the advice they provide has solid legal foundations and they present us with alternatives, which helps us to make decisions."

Work highlights Supported Unilever Andina Venezuela in claims filed by former employees of the company.

Significant clients Abbott Laboratories, Siemens, Banesco Banco Universal, Laboratorios Galderma, Fiat Chysler.

Notable practitioners

Head of department Luis Alfredo Hernández Merlanti is singled out by observers for being "highly knowledgeable" of labour-related matters. Merlanti offers legal expertise on collective bargaining contracts, whilst also boasting a strong academic profile. He also led the team advising on the aforementioned work highlight.

About the Team (content provided by Grau García Hernández & Mónaco)

Department profile not yet provided by Grau García Hernández & Mónaco. Please see their firm profile.

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Imery Urdaneta Calleja Itriago & Flamarique - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 3

第三等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
Head of department: Gabriel Calleja
- 14 qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Solid labour team with strong nationwide coverage. Highly adept at advising clients on labour disputes in both the administrative and judicial contexts. Additional areas of focus for the department include the negotiation of collective bargaining agreements, handling employment terminations and restructurings.

Significant clients Smurfit Kappa Venezuela, Nestlé Venezuela, Lenovo Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA de Venezuela, Shell Venezuela.

Notable practitioners

Gabriel Calleja is recognised by market commentators, who single him out as "a well-known name" in Venezuela's labour and employment sphere. Calleja has experience advising on matters relating to employment terminations, collective labour claims and negotiations with unions.

About the Team (content provided by Imery Urdaneta Calleja Itriago & Flamarique)

Department profile not yet provided by Imery Urdaneta Calleja Itriago & Flamarique. Please see their firm profile.

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Rodríguez & Mendoza - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 3

第三等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- approximately 3 lawyers

What the team is known for Experienced practice group offering counsel to clients on matters spanning both contentious and non-contentious labour issues. Advises local and international clients from a wide range of industries, such as oil and gas and consumer goods. Also equipped to assist companies with compliance with labour regulations.

Notable practitioners

Senior statesman Enrique Itriago is singled out by peers as "a specialist in labour law" and "a business-oriented individual." Itriago is a noteworthy figure in academic circles and remains a highly experienced arbitrator in labour disputes.

About the Team (content provided by Rodríguez & Mendoza)

Department profile not yet provided by Rodríguez & Mendoza. Please see their firm profile.

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Travieso Evans Arria Rengel & Paz - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 3

第三等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- Heads of department: Oscar Torres, Hernando Barboza and Julio Pinto
- 3 partners
- 14 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Noted firm advising key domestic and international corporate clients with labour disputes and workforce reductions, as well as issues concerning payments, benefits and termination compensation. Collective bargaining agreements with unions and major labour disputes are additional areas of focus.

Strengths One peer reports: "They are a full-service firm with strength in labour litigation."

Work highlights Assisted Ford Motor de Venezuela with the negotiation of a collective bargaining agreement.

Significant clients Ford Motor de Venezuela, Avon Cosmetics de Venezuela, Goodyear Venezuela, Kellogg, Banco Occidental de Descuento.

Notable practitioners

Oscar Torres comes highly recommended by interviewees, with one affirming: "I am pleased with his work. He continues to provide excellent service in the litigation and labour areas and provides sound solutions to our needs." Torres is well placed to advise on a broad array of labour mandates, such as negotiations and health and safety issues.

About the Team (content provided by Travieso Evans Arria Rengel & Paz)

Department profile not yet provided by Travieso Evans Arria Rengel & Paz. Please see their firm profile.

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InterJuris Abogados, S.C. - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 4

第四等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- Head of department: Angel Meléndez Cardoza
- 1 partner
- 4 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Solid department sought after by clients to advise on a range of day-to-day mandates as well as restructurings and workforce terminations. Team is strong in labour litigation and has a proven track record representing clients in disputes arising from terminations, at both a judicial and administrative level.

Strengths One source comments: "I am very pleased with them and think they are fantastic in labour litigation."

Work highlights Successfully represented Industria Láctea de Venezuela in an administrative appeal made against a decision of the Labour Ministry office in Mérida ordering the reinstatement and back payment of an employee's salary.

Significant clients Zoetis, Autodesk, Avon Cosmetics de Venezuela, Ericsson, Accenture.

Notable practitioners

Up-and-coming partner Angel Melendez Cardoza is noted by peers as "an academically distinguished practitioner," whilst clients describe him as "a very helpful and practical lawyer who is direct and works with you to find the best solution." Cardoza offers advice on executive remuneration, dismissals and restructurings.

About the Team (content provided by InterJuris Abogados, S.C.)

  • InterJuris Abogados maintains a full service Labor and Employment practice, advising on general labor matters in all major industries in Venezuela. We also are well known for the provision of general advice on labor matters to our clients. For example, Avon is a client that frequently asks us for advice about day-to-day labor matters. Indulac (Lactalis) and Experian are clients that usually ask us for our advice before taking decisions related with labor matters.    
  • InterJuris Abogados is well known for labor litigation, and regularly represent employers in proceedings against the labor ministry. Our impressive track record of success in such cases in the context of Venezuela’s employee-favouring legislative framework illustrates our expertise in this area.
  • InterJuris advises a host of household name foreign clients with major operations in Venezuela. For example, the firm advises Avon, Indulac, Al Jazeera, Ericsson, Gazprom, Experian, among others.
  • Despite the heavily employee-favoured legislative environment in Venezuela, that makes it extremely difficult for employers to terminate staff, we regularly help our clients with major workforce restructurings, terminations and other operations crucial to the success of their businesses.

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Labor Gestión de Gente - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 4

第四等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- Heads of department: Carlos Rivera Salazar and Pedro Uriola González
- 2 partners
- 4 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Recognised team equipped to assist with collective bargaining agreements, the downsizing of workforces and benefits issues. Also offers expertise in labour disputes. Represents a roster of clients hailing from the food and beverage, pharmaceutical and infrastructure industries.

Strengths One observer highlights: "They have great labour and employment know-how and are very aware of the legal changes in terms of labour regulation. They are very helpful in negotiations as well."

Work highlights Assisted Alimentos Difresca with a USD10 million collective labour agreement following its acquisition of a company previously controlled by General Mills.

Significant clients Fundafarmacia, Laboratorios LETI, Bacardi Venezuela, AstraZeneca Venezuela, Consorcio Credicard.

Notable practitioners

Up-and-coming partner Carlos Rivera Salazar receives significant endorsement from observers, who comment: "He has very good negotiation skills and manages meetings with ex-employees very well. He is also good at controlling the emotional elements of proceedings, which is very important and a great strength of his." Others describe his advice as "pragmatic, flexible and to the point."

About the Team (content provided by Labor Gestión de Gente)

Department profile not yet provided by Labor Gestión de Gente. Please see their firm profile.

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Mendoza, Palacios, Acedo, Borjas, Páez Pumar & Cía - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 4

第四等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- Heads of department: Esteban Palacios Lozada and Alfonso Graterol
- 5 partners
- 14 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Experienced practice routinely sought out to advise on labour dispute prevention policies. Advises on negotiations with unions and represents clients in litigation proceedings at all levels. Further experience extends to the drafting of employment contracts and terminations in addition to the organisation of training workshops.

Strengths One interviewee states: "The team that makes up the firm's labour department is permanently focused on client satisfaction. We always receive a range of options and alternatives from them and their recommendations are always accurate and valuable."

Work highlights Successfully assisted Distribuidora Alcarín in a lawsuit filed by its employees claiming to be employed by one of the company's clients.

Significant clients MSD Farmacéutica, Zurich Venezuela, Coca-Cola Servicios de Venezuela, Mudanzas Internacionales Global, Münchener de Venezuela.

Notable practitioners

Sources are full of praise for Esteban Palacios Lozada, stating: "He is a very methodical professional with a great capacity for legal reasoning. He delves into the minute details of each case, which without a doubt makes a big difference. He always demonstrates that every recommendation he makes has been thoroughly analysed." Lozada offers advice on the full range of labour and employment matters.

About the Team (content provided by Mendoza, Palacios, Acedo, Borjas, Páez Pumar & Cía)

Our extensive experience in labor law and litigation in particular differentiate our firm from others. We are among the top advisors on labor matters, including collective bargaining negotiations and litigation.

We advise our clients regarding labor and employment laws and regulations, which are complex and extremely worker-protective, including the very stringent regulations regarding safety in the workplace. 

Negotiation is one of our major skills. We negotiate with union representatives, and individual workers, seeking balanced working relationships and cordial terminations.

We are very active in the design of corporate strategy regarding hiring personnel, terms of engagement, termination policies and other issues, particularly important now in Venezuela, since there is a ban on workers’ dismissal (inamovilidad laboral).

We have an extensive and successful experience in labor litigation, having handled up to 2,000 cases simultaneously.

In the context of our M&A practice, we conduct due diligence processes with regard to the target company, focusing, among other matters, on labor issues, procedures and relationships.

We advise clients regarding labor-related fiscal and similar contributions, such as social security and apprentice regulations, which impact working relationships. We advise on the legal application of the rules and also represent our clients before the competent authorities.

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Tinoco Travieso Planchart & Núñez - Labour & Employment Department

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Band 4

第四等

Chambers Commentary (based on the Chambers research)

Basic facts about the department
- approximately 1 partner
- approximately 3 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Recognised labour department offering advice on a broad spectrum of issues including judicial and administrative proceedings for a wide range of multinational and local companies. Terminations and compensation claims, as well as work-related accidents, feature as further areas of the department's specialisation.

Notable practitioners

Associate-to-watch Eddy De Sousa Pereira is a noteworthy practitioner within Venezuela's labour and employment arena. He offers legal counsel to clients on the full range of labour and employment issues.

About the Team (content provided by Tinoco Travieso Planchart & Núñez)

Department profile not yet provided by Tinoco Travieso Planchart & Núñez. Please see their firm profile.

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Senior Statesperson

Luis Alfredo Araque

AraqueReyna

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Senior statesman Luis Alfredo Araque has over 40 years of experience acting as counsel to clients on labour and employment-related matters. His previous experience comprises collective bargaining mandates as well as consulting on the drafting of several pieces of labour legislation.

^ See whole ranking table

Senior Statesperson

Rodríguez & Mendoza

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Senior statesman Enrique Itriago is singled out by peers as "a specialist in labour law" and "a business-oriented individual." Itriago is a noteworthy figure in academic circles and remains a highly experienced arbitrator in labour disputes.

^ See whole ranking table

Star Individuals

Juan Carlos Pró-Rísquez

Norton Rose Fulbright

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Star individual Juan Carlos Pró-Rísquez is a revered figure within Venezuela's labour and employment sphere. Impressed interviewees single him out for praise, stating: "He is a clear market leader here" and "I believe that he is the best labour lawyer in Venezuela." He garners further plaudits from market sources, who state: "He is very well respected in labour law" and "he is an outstanding lawyer." Pró-Rísquez has significant experience assisting clients from the oil and gas, pharmaceutical and consumer goods industries.

^ See whole ranking table

Band 1

Alejandro Disilvestro

D'Empaire

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Co-head of department Alejandro Disilvestro is praised by one source as "an expert in this area," with sources going on to mention: "He always looks for the best alternative, taking the local legislation and interests of our company into account. He is attentive, diligent and dedicated, and is also a reliable lawyer. I trust him implicitly for any sort of labour-related advice." His expertise centres on collective bargaining agreements.

^ See whole ranking table

Band 1

Victorino Márquez Ferrer

D'Empaire

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Highly revered department co-head Victorino Márquez Ferrer is described by one interviewee as "very versatile, strategic, pragmatic and energetic." They go on to note: "He is always available, good-natured and humble." Márquez Ferrer served as lead partner on the aforementioned work highlight for the Embassy of the United States in Caracas, and also recently advised Citibank of the labour aspects of restructuring its Venezuelan operations.

^ See whole ranking table

Band 1

Travieso Evans Arria Rengel & Paz

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Oscar Torres comes highly recommended by interviewees, with one affirming: "I am pleased with his work. He continues to provide excellent service in the litigation and labour areas and provides sound solutions to our needs." Torres is well placed to advise on a broad array of labour mandates, such as negotiations and health and safety issues.

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Band 2

Esther Cecilia Blondet Serfaty

Norton Rose Fulbright

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Esther Cecilia Blondet Serfaty is praised by market observers, who note that she is "a very good and intelligent lawyer" and go on to describe her as "a point of reference" for labour and employment issues. Others highlight her as "a top negotiator." Blondet is a highly experienced litigator and has additional strength negotiating collective bargaining agreements with unions.

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Band 2

Imery Urdaneta Calleja Itriago & Flamarique

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Gabriel Calleja is recognised by market commentators, who single him out as "a well-known name" in Venezuela's labour and employment sphere. Calleja has experience advising on matters relating to employment terminations, collective labour claims and negotiations with unions.

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Band 2

Colmenares Trivella Carballo Alvarez

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Cesar Carballo of Colmenares Trivella Carballo Alvarez offers a full range of legal services relating to the labour and employment field. Carballo is also noted for his strong presence in academic circles.

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Band 2

Baker McKenzie SC

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Clients holds Carlos Felce in high esteem, one noting that he is "very accessible, attentive and knowledgeable of the labour and employment arena." Sources go on to add: "I like his proactivity." Felce's areas of particular strength include assisting clients with the labour aspects of corporate restructurings, collective bargaining agreements and hiring and terminations.

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Band 2

Luis Alfredo Hernández Merlanti

Grau García Hernández & Mónaco

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Head of department Luis Alfredo Hernández Merlanti is singled out by observers for being "highly knowledgeable" of labour-related matters. Merlanti offers legal expertise on collective bargaining contracts, whilst also boasting a strong academic profile. He also led the team advising on the aforementioned work highlight.

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Band 2

Juan Carlos Varela

Littler Mendelson, PC

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Juan Carlos Varela is recognised by peers as "a good labour lawyer." Varela is well placed to advise clients on labour and employment law matters such as labour audits and compensation. He is also noted for his experience handling contentious issues, including labour litigation and arbitration.

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Band 3

Norton Rose Fulbright

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Partner Yanet Aguiar "is a very good and diligent lawyer," according to sources. She primarily focuses her practice on labour litigation, whilst also offering advice on social security laws and employee immigration.

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Band 3

Leĝa Abogados

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Pablo Benavente receives endorsement from sources, who state: "We have a great relationship with him. He has offered us a lot of support and has great knowledge of labour law. The work he does for us is excellent and professional."

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Band 3

Carlos Alberto Henríquez

Leĝa Abogados

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Partner Carlos Alberto Henríquez is described by market commentators as "clear and sharp." They go on to mention: "He has profound knowledge of the local legal environment." Henríquez principally focuses his practice on collective bargaining agreements with unions and labour litigation.

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Band 3

Simón Jurado-Blanco

Jurado Blanco & Aguirre

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Simón Jurado-Blanco of Jurado Blanco & Aguirre is endorsed by market commentators for being "an excellent and effective lawyer." Clients highlight that he is "very diligent," going on to note that "his biggest advantage is that he knows our business very well and knows the specifics of the market."

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Band 3

Esteban Palacios Lozada

Mendoza, Palacios, Acedo, Borjas, Páez Pumar & Cía

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Sources are full of praise for Esteban Palacios Lozada, stating: "He is a very methodical professional with a great capacity for legal reasoning. He delves into the minute details of each case, which without a doubt makes a big difference. He always demonstrates that every recommendation he makes has been thoroughly analysed." Lozada offers advice on the full range of labour and employment matters.

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Band 3

Littler Mendelson, PC

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Sources note that Liliana Salazar is "a very good lawyer" as well as "a good litigator." Salazar has long-standing experience representing clients in labour trials, and provides further areas of expertise including the termination of high-level executive employees.

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Band 3

María Elena Subero

Leĝa Abogados

From the Chambers Latin America guide

María Elena Subero is singled out by clients for being "very emphatic, professional and accessible." She is experienced performing labour audits as well as consulting on the labour aspects of corporate restructurings and employee reductions.

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Band 4

Littler Mendelson, PC

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Interviewees point to the quality of the legal services provided by partner Ricardo Alonso. He advises on reorganisations and mass employee terminations, as well as the related contentious mandates stemming from such activities.

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Band 4

Ponte Andrade & Casanova

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Ignacio Andrade of Ponte Andrade & Casanova has expertise in a number of labour-related matters and is particularly strong acting in collective labour negotiations.

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Band 4

María Alejandra Blanco

Blanco Santana Montiel & Rincón

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Founding partner María Alejandra Blanco of Blanco Santana Montiel & Rincón is highlighted by peers as "a good and intelligent lawyer." Blanco is active in negotiations with unions.

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Band 4

Gimón Troconis & Asociados

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Santiago Gimón of Gimón Troconis & Asociados is noted by peers as "a good lawyer" who is "active in the labour and employment sphere." He is particularly strong in union negotiations.

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Band 4

Norton Rose Fulbright

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Eirys Mata is referred to by peers as "a very good lawyer." Mata is a specialist in labour litigation, though her areas of expertise extend to compensation matters.

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Band 4

Gustavo Nieto - Sole Practitioner

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Sole practitioner Gustavo Nieto enters the rankings this year and garners considerable praise from sources, who report: "He is proactive and dedicated to being successful." Others highlight "his negotiation skills, constant availability, and ability to give legal recommendations appropriate to the needs of the company."

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Band 4

Altum Abogados

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Mariana Roso of Altum Abogados is described by commentators as a "great lawyer," and "a highly responsible and proactive professional." She is equipped to advise companies on compliance with labour and employment regulations, as well as on terminations.

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Up and Coming

Angel Melendez Cardoza

InterJuris Abogados, S.C.

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Up-and-coming partner Angel Melendez Cardoza is noted by peers as "an academically distinguished practitioner," whilst clients describe him as "a very helpful and practical lawyer who is direct and works with you to find the best solution." Cardoza offers advice on executive remuneration, dismissals and restructurings.

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Up and Coming

Carlos E. Rivera Salazar

Labor Gestión de Gente

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Up-and-coming partner Carlos Rivera Salazar receives significant endorsement from observers, who comment: "He has very good negotiation skills and manages meetings with ex-employees very well. He is also good at controlling the emotional elements of proceedings, which is very important and a great strength of his." Others describe his advice as "pragmatic, flexible and to the point."

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Up and Coming

Leĝa Abogados

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Up-and-coming partner John Tucker is able to advise on executive compensation as well as litigation related to special compensation packages for senior staff. He is also active in handling cross-border employment matters.

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Associates to watch

Leĝa Abogados

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Associate-to-watch Natalia De Paz receives praise from clients, with one enthusing: "She is fantastic. I have a very high opinion of her." She is noted for her activity in labour litigation, whilst additionally offering advice on employee terminations.

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Associates to watch

Eddy De Sousa Pereira

Tinoco Travieso Planchart & Núñez

From the Chambers Latin America guide

Associate-to-watch Eddy De Sousa Pereira is a noteworthy practitioner within Venezuela's labour and employment arena. He offers legal counsel to clients on the full range of labour and employment issues.

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