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Baker & McKenzie


Baker & McKenzie - London
  • 100 New Bridge Street
  • London
  • Greater London
  • UK
  • EC4V 6JA
  • Managing Partner Paul Rawlinson
  • UK  
  • Number of partners 81
  • Assistant solicitors 231
  • Other fee-earners 118
  • International  
  • Number of lawyers worldwide +4000

THE FIRM For more than 60 years, Baker & McKenzie has provided sophisticated advice and legal services to many of the world’s most dynamic and successful organisations.With more than 4,000 locally qualified, internationally experienced lawyers in 46 countries, the firm has the fluency to deliver a broad scope of quality legal services – consistently, with confidence and sensitivity for cultural, social and legal practice differences. Baker & McKenzie professionals share common values of integrity, personal responsibility and tenacity in an enthusiastic client-service culture. The firm is still guided by the entrepreneurial spirit and demanding standards of its founders and works to forge close personal relationships among its professionals in order to foster the responsiveness and accountability clients rightfully expect. The firm has a diverse and welcoming culture. Its lawyers and other professionals are citizens of more than 60 countries and are admitted to practice in nearly 250 jurisdictions. They speak more than 75 languages, with English in common. They have offices in 74 locations worldwide, including in 26 of the world’s 30 largest economies. The firm’s advanced technology and management systems include a single, shared global technology platform for client intake, email and billing systems; global practice standards; a quality audit program; and a worldwide conflicts policy based on the standards of the American Bar Association.

London Office: As a pre-eminent legal centre, London is a strategic priority for Baker & McKenzie. During more than 50 years in the City, Baker & McKenzie has established a very strong platform from which to continue its growth.With more than 400 fee earners, the London office is the firm’s largest, as well as the largest of any City law firm that originated outside of the UK. It covers all the practices expected of a major international law firm. Many of these practices are market-leading. Much of their work is cross border and their Corporate and Finance teams, in particular, regularly advise on, and co-ordinate, complex, cross-border transactions. Baker & McKenzie works closely with the rest of their offices around the world. High profile matters and transactions, coupled with the firm’s global reach and capability, have helped Baker & McKenzie to increase its work with the UK’s leading businesses. A Chambers Magazine survey from 2011 ranked the firm among the top 15 advisors to FTSE 100 companies, acting for 11% of them, and more than any other non-UK origin law firm.

What others say about Baker & McKenzie LLP: Baker & McKenzie is frequently acknowledged as a leading provider of legal services by major publications, professional organisations and research institutions. Baker & McKenzie was ranked among the top 5 most innovative firms in Europe by the FT Innovative Lawyers 2012, as well as Most Innovative Firm in Europe for Client Service. Baker & McKenzie was also recognised as Firm of the Year in Europe and Southeast Asia by Chambers. The Acritas sharplegal® Global Elite Brand Index has named Baker & McKenzie the world’s No. 1 law firm brand for three consecutive years. The firm has been one of Corporate Board Member magazine’s Most Admired Law Firms since the survey began in 2001 and has been a member of BTI Consulting’s Client Service ATeam in four of the past five years. Baker & McKenzie has also been cited as Asian Counsel’s Most Responsive International Firm of the Year for China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore and Thailand. In the UK, the firm won Legal Business’ Private Equity Team of the Year 2012 and the Lawyer’s Competition Team of the Year 2012. The firm also won the Lawyer’s Employer of the Year award 2012 and was ranked in the Sunday Times 100 Best Companies To Work For 2010-2012 and The Times Top Graduate Employers Survey 2010-2011 and 2013-2014.

INTERNATIONAL Abu Dhabi, Almaty, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Bahrain, Baku, Bangkok, Barcelona, Beijing, Berlin, Bogotá, Brasilia, Brussels, Budapest, Buenos Aires, Cairo, Caracas, Casablanca, Chicago, Dallas, Doha, Dubai, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Geneva, Guadalajara, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Houston, Istanbul, Jakarta, Johannesburg, Juarez, Kuala Lumpur, Kyiv, Lima, London, Luxembourg, Madrid, Manila, Melbourne, Mexico City, Miami, Milan, Monterrey, Moscow, Munich, New York, Palo Alto, Paris, Porto Alegre, Prague, Rio de Janeiro, Riyadh, Rome, Seoul, San Francisco, Santiago, São Paulo, Shanghai, Singapore, St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Sydney, Taipei, Tijuana, Tokyo, Toronto, Valencia, Vienna, Warsaw, Washington DC, Zurich.

  • Banking Bernard Sharp
  • Capital Markets Edward Bibko
  • Corporate Tim Gee
  • Commercial Duncan Reid-Thomas
  • Commercial 
  • Construction Jeremy Winter
  • Corporate Finance/M&A Tim Gee
  • Derivatives Vincent Keaveny
  • Dispute Resolution/Litigation/ADR John Leadley
  • Employment Christine O’Brien
  • Employee Benefits Jeremy Edwards
  • Energy & Natural Resources Mike Webster, Neil Donoghue
  • Environment Graham Stuart
  • EU, Competition & Trade Samantha Mobley
  • Financial Services 
  • Information Technology Harry Small, Christina Demetriades
  • Insolvency Louise Webb
  • Intellectual 
  • Insurance John Leadley, Arun Srivastava
  • Immigration Tony Haque
  • Media Steve Holmes, Ben Allgrove
  • Pensions Robert West
  • Pharmaceuticals & Healthcare Jane Hobson
  • Wealth Management Ashley Crossley
  • Private Equity Charles Whitefoord
  • Projects Mike Webster, Calvin Walker 
  • Structured Capital Markets Vincent Keaveny
  • Tax Alex Chadwick
  • Telecoms Peter Strivens
  • Trade Law (WTO) Ross Denton
  • VAT, Customs & Excise Mark Delaney, Ross Denton


Banking & Finance - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 9 partners
- 42 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Demonstrates strength in multi-jurisdictional transactions, drawing on impressive international resources. Frequently engaged by sponsor clients on high-profile, high-value mandates.  

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
 Market standing: "They have good clients and are very active in the market." 

Work highlights Represented EQT throughout its EUR1.8 billion financing of Montagu Private Equity's purchase of BSN Medical.

Acted for the arranger, VTB Capital, on the provision of a term loan facility to Transfin-M.

Notable practitioners 

Bernard Sharp is praised for his strong negotiation skills and ability to cultivate relationships with sponsors. He advised EQT Fund V on the EUR115 million refinancing of HTL Strefa.

Peers identify Nick Tostivin as a top pick to refer to if they were conflicted on a transaction. 

Significant clients Standard Chartered Bank, Carlsberg, HSBC, BTA Bank, AXA Private Equity.

Banking Litigation - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 7 partners
- 11 associates
- 18 other fee earners

What the team is known for Strong City practice enhanced by its global reach. Acts on a broad range of banking and finance matters including derivatives, debt restructurings, loan notes and trade finance disputes. Active in Libor-related litigation.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Client service: "I am impressed with their technical ability, responsiveness and personal relationship. They are willing to go above and beyond what is required."

Notable practitioners  

Anthony Poulton handles a broad range of work including fraud matters, asset tracing and trusts disputes. His practice also covers securitisation-related litigation.

Andrew Keltie deals with a wide variety of litigation and has notable experience handling matters with international elements. He has specialist knowledge in trusts disputes.

Associate Gemma Willingham is described by clients as "first-class: incredibly talented and hard-working."

Significant clients Bank St Petersburg, Československá obchodní banka, Grupo Torras.

Capital Markets - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
 - 9 partners 
 - 17 associates

What the team is known for Capitalises on the firm's comprehensive global coverage to offer a seamless service to international clients on both ECM and DCM matters. Focuses largely on cross-border deals and is well known for its extensive emerging markets expertise, with particular recent focus on deals involving Russia and Turkey.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Client service: "They get their hands dirty with you. I think that's the key distinction."

Work highlights Acted on behalf of the Kingdom of Bahrain in relation to its USD1.5 billion bond issuance.

Advised Russian oil group Exillon Energy with regards to a secondary placing of its shares on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. 

Notable practitioners  

Christopher Hogan heads the UK DCM group, and he largely concentrates on the Middle East and the CIS, frequently advising on equity-linked and debt transactions originating there. He also has considerable experience in Islamic finance transactions.  

Edward Bibko heads up the EMEA capital markets group at the firm, and regularly advises on international ECM and DCM transactions. According to sources he "is tenacious yet courteous in dealing with difficult corporate clients and can get things done in difficult situations."

Significant clients ING, Banco Santander Totta, Michelin Luxembourg, Metinvest, Schmolz + Bickenbach.

Capital Markets: Structured Finance, Securitisation & Derivatives - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
 - 3 partners 
 - 8 other qualified lawyers 

What the team is known for Demonstrates notable strength in securitisation, advising on transactions involving all types of asset classes, including commercial mortgages and auto loans. Draws on the firm's vast global footprint and works cohesively with overseas colleagues to provide a seamless approach on multi-jurisdictional matters.

Work highlights Acted for the London branch of South Africa-incorporated FirstRand Bank in connection with its role as joint lead manager and originator on a £332 million securitisation of UK auto loan receivables.

Advised Investec Bank in relation to a £246 million UK RMBS transaction, for which the bank was acting as both originator and joint lead manager.

Notable practitioners  

Vincent Keaveny acts as head of the firm's structured capital markets group. His securitisation expertise covers the full range of asset classes; notably, he acted for FirstRand Bank on the aforementioned auto loans securitisation. He regularly advises on European transactions, with particular experience of the Portuguese and Greek markets.

Jonathan Walsh acted for Investec with regard to its role as originator in a £246 million UK RMBS transaction. He concentrates on structured finance and securitisation matters, usually of a cross-border nature, and interviewees admire the big-picture approach that he takes.

Significant clients Agricultural Bank of China, Finansbank, ISS, National Australia Bank, Volkswagen Financial Services (UK). 

Since publication, Luke Whitmore has joined Field Fisher Waterhouse LLP

Competition/European Law - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 7 partners
- 16 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Delivering on a global platform through a comprehensive international network of expert competition practitioners. Particularly accomplished in advising blue-chip companies on compliance and behavioural issues. Capable of handling complex competition matters at an EU level.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
International capability: "For competition matters we need global advice, and their reach is unparalleled."

Problem solving: "They are practical, pragmatic problem solvers." 

Work highlights Represented Panalpina World Transport in its appeal at the General Court against the fine imposed by the EC in the freight-forwarding cartel.

Advised British Airways on the EU competition compliance requirements of a proposed joint venture between the company and Japan Airlines.

Notable practitioners 

Noted for being "a polished and accomplished lawyer," Samantha Mobley demonstrates impressive competition expertise. Key strengths include the ability to advise companies on competition compliance issues.

Thomas Cassels adds further weight to the group's capabilities in competition litigation. He has experience in appearing before the CAT and recently acted in several follow-on damages claims on behalf of key client Shell.

Clients value Keith Jones for his ability to "provide useful, workable advice and clear guidance that minimises risk." He is also praised for his "pragmatic and approachable nature." His key clients include L'Oréal and Nike.

Luis Gomez is viewed as being "very pragmatic and easy to work with." Clients also value his responsive nature and communication skills.

Significant clients BAT, Mitsubishi Electric, Johnson Matthey, Rio Tinto, Shell.

Since publication, Richard Pike has joined Constantine Cannon LLP

Corporate/M&A - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
-17 partners
-53 associates

What the team is known for Well-established London team frequently works with colleagues throughout the world on cross-border transactions. Expertise in emerging markets and in key sectors such as energy, mining and utilities.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Client service: "They gave us excellent service, and were highly attentive and very well informed."

Client service: "They made the whole experience comparatively pleasant."

Efficiency: "They are well organised and efficient." 

Commercial awareness: "They are sensible people who are good to do business with."

Work highlights Advised the management of Global Blue on the sale of Global Blue to Silver Lake Partners and Partners Group for EUR1 billion.

Represented a consortium led by Access Capital Advisers on the acquisition of 70% of LBC Terminals for an aggregate value of approximately USD300 million.

Notable practitioners  

Timothy Gee is "reassuring" and "pleasant to deal with," and "has a wise head," clients say. He recently advised Carlsberg on a public offer to buy shares in Baltika Breweries for approximately USD1.2 billion.

Significant clients Siemens, GM, Best Buy, Alliance Oil, Rio Tinto.

Employment - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department

- 5 partners
- 26 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Unparalleled international reach, with the ability to handle complex multi-jurisdictional employment cases. Acts for a wide range of respondent clients, typically undertaking their most sensitive and high-profile matters.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Client service: "Their service was really valuable and well priced. They had the infrastructure to make it easy for us."

International capability: "Baker & McKenzie is a very big firm and I like the fact that they have coverage everywhere."

Work highlights Represented the BBC Trust in the highly publicised departure of the former BBC Director General.

Advised British Airways on a number of concerns, including defending multiparty age discrimination claims before the Supreme Court.

Notable practitioners  

John Evason is hailed for his ability to "step away from a purely UK perspective" and provide clients with global insight. One source remarked favourably upon his client-handling skills, whilst another labelled him as "one of the leading employment lawyers within the country." He was heavily involved in the BBC Trust matter.

Monica Kurnatowska assisted General Motors throughout the negotiation of a labour agreement with Unite the Union. One client said: "She speaks to me like I'm the most important person on the planet. She's very approachable, knowledgeable and extremely professional."

Daniel Ellis draws praise from multiple sources on account of his capacity to handle complex multi-jurisdictional matters. One client referred to him as "an expert on the transactional side," whilst others extol his ability to co-ordinate cases across the firm's international network.

Sarah Gregory leads the firm's discrimination practice and is frequently called upon to provide representation in such cases.

Department head Christine O'Brien is perceived to be "excellent at co-ordinating matters amongst her colleagues." She regularly provides advice to respondent clients on whistle-blowing allegations, boardroom terminations and discrimination claims. 

According to sources, talented associate Stephen Ratcliffe is able to strike a "good balance between understanding the technical issues and taking a practical approach." He is perceived as "very solutions-oriented" and as having a "good eye for detail."

Significant clients Celgene, Prudential, Accenture, Sony, Lloyd's of London.

Environment - London (Firms)

What the team is known for Advises clients on regulatory and product stewardship issues, and particularly on REACH, RoHS, WEEE and packaging-related matters.  

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Strategic planning: "We relied heavily on their expertise, guidance and strategic advice."

Bench strength: "The firm has good resources and a deep bench." 

Work highlights Advised Logitech on product stewardship issues related to RoHS, WEEE, Batteries Regulations and environmental product marking requirements.

Notable practitioners  

Graham Stuart is a key contact.

Significant clients Sony, IDEX, Invensys.

Fraud - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department

- 4 partners
- 27 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Good reputation for representing claimants and defendants in multi-jurisdictional fraud cases. Impressive asset tracing experience.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Commercial awareness: "They are very much on top of the law, but also have a very strong commercial sense of what they want to achieve and what the client is about."

Work highlights Continues to advise the Kuwait Investment Office on the recovery of assets misappropriated from its subsidiary, Grupo Torras, which collapsed in 1992 amid allegations of fraud.

Notable practitioners  

"Powerful litigator" Andrew Keltie has a highly regarded civil fraud practice, which incorporates elements of business crime defence. Sources describe him as "astute," "diligent" and "extremely experienced."

Sources characterise Anthony Poulton as "calm and collected," but "incredibly bright and savvy in terms of the law and the facts of the cases." He is regularly called upon to handle fraud cases involving strong elements of trust law.

"Rising star" Charles Thomson is singled out as someone who is "very bright and really on top of his game." Sources admire his ability to "see the bigger picture" in representing his clients' interests.

Significant clients Pitt Capital, Bank St Petersburg, Financial Services Authority.

Hotels & Leisure - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 9 partners

What the team is known for Broad-based hotels and leisure practice in the London market, with corporate, tax and finance expertise. Particularly active on the finance, construction, acquisition and disposal of hotels and other leisure properties.

Work highlights Acted for Edwardian Group on the acquisition and associated financing of a development site adjoining Leicester Square Hotel.

Notable practitioners

Justin Salkeld handles real estate matters, including acquisitions, disposals, development and financing. Peers highlight his "charming" manner.

Significant clients Fairmont Hotels Group, Baglioni Hotels, Goodearth Hotels Group/Cockpit Hotels, Olayan Group, Raffles Hotels & Resorts.

Immigration - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 2 qualified practitioners

What the team is known for Corporate immigration practice with offices in more than 40 countries. Offers a seamless business immigration service between various different jurisdictions.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Industry knowledge: "A supportive team that works well together and with us. They are knowledgeable about their niche."

Market standing: "Baker & Mckenzie is well known for its global mobility work."

Notable practitioners  

The well-respected Tony Haque is "very knowledgeable on corporate immigration." He is hugely experienced in the area and regularly advises global companies on their immigration issues.

Information Technology - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department

- 8 partners
- 22 associates

What the team is known for Handles complicated infrastructure projects, as well as e-commerce, IP, data protection and contentious matters, and benefits from an international network of offices. 

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
International capability: "We use the group for multi-jurisdictional deals because they have international reach."

Technical ability: "Baker & McKenzie has one of the top IT disputes teams in London." 

Notable practitioners 

Harry Small heads up the firm's global IT and communications group. He is considered "a real standout" in the field of IT disputes, and is further praised for his intimate understanding of the science behind information technology.

Robbie Downing is a noted expert in the sector, particularly with regard to multi-jurisdictional compliance projects and European Union law as it affects cookies. He counts Google and L'Oréal among his clients.

Steve Holmes is roundly admired by clients and fellow lawyers alike for his assured handling of global TMT projects. He is much sought after by buyers of IT systems for regulatory advice on digital services.

Michael Hart chairs the London office's IT department and is an expert on IP rights, particularly copyright, trade secrets and design rights with regard to IT systems and services. He handles commercial and contentious matters.

Ben Allgrove handles a mixture of advisory, litigious and transactional matters where cutting-edge technologies and platforms converge. He is a solicitor advocate and regularly appears before the Copyright Tribunal and the High Court. Clients say: "He's just got a huge brain. That's why we like him."

Significant clients Accenture, Ernst & Young, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Telefónica Digital. 

Since publication, Christina Demetriades has moved in-house.

Intellectual Property - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 4 partners
- 18 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Advises a number of leading global companies from a number of industries on all manner of IP interests in Europe and further afield. Particularly strong in relation to portfolio management and trade mark matters.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Commercial awareness: "They have a very commercial approach that is invaluable to us."

Problem solving: "Able to filter and provide advice in a form that is easy to digest. Advice is balanced, and not risk averse."

Commercial awareness: "Advice is tailored to our specific operational requirements."

Work highlights Acted for Meltwater in a long-running and high-profile media case with the Newspaper Licensing Authority (NLA). The appeal was heard by the Supreme Court in February 2013.

Advises social media company Pinterest on the IP aspects of its business operations.

Notable practitioners  

Michael Hart heads up the practice group and is well known among peers as a "very knowledgeable" practitioner in soft IP matters, particularly those with an IT flavour. He co-led on the NLA v Meltwater case.

Ben Allgrove is rapidly gaining a reputation among both clients and peers as a "phenomenal" younger partner with a "very deep understanding" of technology-related IP. He was co-lead for Meltwater in the Supreme Court.

"Very efficient and pleasant," Paul Rawlinson advises on trade mark portfolios and any related litigation. He represented Sportingbet in litigation relating to the wallstreet.com domain name.

Hiroshi Sheraton is developing a fine reputation as an IP litigator. He is commended for his expertise and is widely recognised by peers as an excellent practitioner. He acts for 32Red in its case against William Hill.

Significant clients Cisco, Sony, Hewlett-Packard, Google, BAT.

International Arbitration - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 4 partners
- 20 associates

What the team is known for Recognised international arbitration group offering clients valuable global resources. Frequently active in Eastern European casework, as well as arbitrations involving the Middle East.  

What's new? Partner Steve Abraham joined the firm from Norton Rose in January 2013.

Notable practitioners  

Steve Abraham is a new addition to the group and is seen as a strong hire for the firm. Sources describe him as a "sensible, knowledgeable, pragmatic and very commercial" lawyer. He has specific expertise in the mining, infrastructure and energy markets.

Sources single out Edward Poulton as "one of the rising stars in arbitration; a thoroughly capable advocate and a great person to have on side." He handles both commercial and investment treaty work, and has significant experience in arbitrating before the ICC.  

Significant clients CSOB, Carlsberg Breweries, Gemalto, Talsud.

Litigation - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department 
- 17 partners 

What the team is known for Noted for its aptitude in high-stakes, high-value litigation on a global basis. Extensive international footprint invites mandates from some of the world's most prestigious corporations. Established specialism in fraud, public law and competition cases.  

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Market standing: "In my experience they get very high-quality instructions; I regard them as being serious players in commercial litigation." 

Efficiency: "They are very on top of things, they are reliable – you can't overstate the importance of that in litigation." 

Work highlights Advised the BBC Trust on a range of contentious issues including a judicial review over a scheduling cut and appeals mounted by an independent candidate and the Liberal Democrats concerning the allocation of party election broadcasts.

Acted for Camelot UK Lotteries on its judicial review claim against the decision of the Gambling Commission to allow the continuation of Northern & Shell's Health Lottery scheme.  

Notable practitioners  

Andrew Keltie "is completely in control at all times. He is on top of things and impeccably prepared," enthuses one client. His practice covers an impressive range of claims, on a domestic and international basis, with an emphasis on fraud and contentious trusts work.

Significant clients Accenture, Globe Motors, Cable & Wireless, Kuwait Investment Office, Shell.

Pensions - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department

- 4 partners
- 19 associates

What the team is known for Benefits from the firm's global presence and can draw on the expertise of lawyers working in the employment, banking and financial services teams. Provides comprehensive pensions advice to employers and trustees. 

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Innovation: "They think for themselves and don't follow the herd."  

Client service: "They've got their feet on the ground so are a pleasure to work with."

Pragmatic advice: "Members are client-focused, commercial and practical."

Work highlights Advised Merchant Navy Officers Pension Fund on a £680 million bulk annuity deal with Rothesay Life, covering the benefits of around 40,000 members of a section of the scheme. It was the largest bulk annuity transaction of 2012.

Advised DENSO on a pension scheme buyout agreement with Pension Insurance Corporation, which enabled the company to divest itself of around £200 million liabilities in two of its schemes, while ensuring that members continue to accrue final salary benefits.

Notable practitioners  

Sources praise Jeanette Holland's authoritative manner and ability to work well in a team. Her clients include Evonik and Emerson.

Chantal Thompson acts for clients such as CSC Computer Sciences and Kellogg Brown & Root. One source states: "She's very personable, efficient and helpful, and comes up with good solutions."

Arron Slocombe is noted as "very technically proficient." He has recently acted for clients such as Lufthansa and DENSO.

Jonathan Sharp is a senior associate at the firm, recognised for playing a central role in advising a number of high-profile clients. He has recently acted for CSC Computer Sciences and Emcor Drake & Scull Retirement Benefits Plan.

Robert West is praised by commentators as "highly knowledgeable with bags of experience," and has "a very commercial approach to issues." He recently advised Merchant Navy Officers Pension Fund on the aforementioned bulk annuity deal. 

Significant clients Merchant Navy Officers Pension Fund, Lufthansa, Evonik, Kimberly-Clark, trustees of the Royal Mail Senior Executives Pension Plan.

Private Client - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 1 partner
- 7 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A broad-reaching contentious and non-contentious private client team with a truly global scope. Typically advises both wealthy individuals and wealth management institutions on tax and trust matters, both in the UK and overseas.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Technical ability: "The firm is ideal for clients with complex corporate or family wealth. The team understands cross-border tax and succession planning issues, making them well placed to advise clients with commercial interests."

Notable practitioners  

Ashley Crossley focuses his practice on international tax planning matters and is popular with clients. Sources comment that "he is dynamic, forthright, articulate and on top of his subject area. There is no waffle in what he says – his advice is to the point."

Public International Law - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 8 partners
- 16 associates

What the team is known for Expertise in investment treaty arbitration and its international reach, afforded by an extensive global network of offices. Standout for international sanctions and environment-related work.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Responsiveness: "They were very responsive, and often turned things round in advance."

Commercial awareness: "They understand the commercial aims of clients."

What's new? Investment treaty dispute expert Steve Abraham has joined the department as a partner.

Notable practitioners  

Team leader Edward Poulton focuses his practice on advising major companies on high-stake PIL issues arising from investment treaties. He is applauded by sources for his expertise in acting for clients in BIT claims, as well as advising on investment strategies under such treaties. Clients appreciate his commercial, pragmatic approach and responsiveness.

Significant clients CSOB, Public International Law & Policy Group, Standard Bank, Suzano Papel e Celulose.

Real Estate - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department

- 15 partners
- 14 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Active in all areas of commercial real estate, particularly investment and financing. Acts for banks, retailers, corporate occupiers and hospitality clients. Known for significant international reach.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

Responsiveness: "They are extremely responsive. You can speak to the individuals involved, they're available. They are very prompt in dealing with matters we want looked at."

What's new? New client wins include Siam Commercial Bank.

Work highlights Acted for Edwardian Group on the acquisition of a development site adjoining Leicester Square Hotel from receivers.

Notable practitioners  

Head of the real estate group Stephen Turner focuses on investment transactions, development and real estate financing. Clients say: "His knowledge of the real estate market and related legal issues is excellent. He has an answer and a solution to any query we have."  

Significant clients Employees Provident Fund of Malaysia, Oracle, Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, CIMB Bank, Canada Life.

Since publication, Michael Heyworth-Dunn has moved in-house.

Restructuring/Insolvency - London (Firms)

This firm is classed as a "Other Noted Firm".

Other Noted Firms are firms that are active in this practice area but have not yet been ranked.

Tax - London (Firms)

Basic facts about the department
- 6 partners
- 15 associates

What the team is known for Particularly noted for its handling of the tax aspects of major M&A and joint ventures, as well as providing specific expertise on intellectual property matters, including Patent Box qualification. Also recognised for its strong capacity to advise on transfer pricing and the implications of anti-avoidance measures.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Geographical scope: "They are focused on tax – they have a very good international network with offices in major countries."

Work highlights Advised Bertelsmann on tax issues surrounding the joint venture between its Random House business and the Penguin Group, now a publishing business with revenues of some £2.5 billion.

Assisting Abbott Laboratories in the tax efficient structuring of the separation of its research-based pharmaceuticals business from its other healthcare activities in the UK.

Notable practitioners  

Practice head Alex Chadwick advises on M&A, joint ventures and restructurings, especially those with an international aspect. He was the lead adviser to Bertelsmann on tax matters concerning its joint venture with Random House.

Geoff Kay advises on a range of corporate tax matters, with key recent work highlights including assisting Abbott Laboratories with the tax-efficient structuring of a corporate reorganisation.

Significant clients Sony, Macquarie, Emerson, Best Buy, Baker Hughes.

Administrative & Public Law - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 6 partners
- 20 other lawyers 

What the team is known for Maintains an outstanding and innovative public law practice across a range of areas, including telecoms, sport regulation and media regulation.  

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Technical ability: "They are technically very good, and very pleasant and professional to deal with."

Market standing: "A very solid, able firm." 

What's new? New client and panel wins include the BBC Trust and the Professional Standards Authority for Health & Social Care.

Work highlights Advised the BBC Trust on a range of matters arising from the Leveson Inquiry.

Advised the BBC Trust on a range of matters relating to the Smith Review and the Pollard Review, each of which was concerned with the BBC's conduct in relation to the controversies surrounding Jimmy Savile.  

Advised Camelot UK Lotteries on its use of Northern & Shell's Health Lottery scheme.

Notable practitioners  

Thomas Cassels is head of the firm's regulatory and public law team, and practises across the entire range of media and regulatory law. Clients regard him as an "absolutely fantastic" practitioner who is "clever, pragmatic, charming and unflappable," while market sources find him "extremely knowledgeable and competent, and very nice to deal with."

Joanna Ludlam handles a wide range of cases relating to media law and reputation management. She has recently worked closely with the BBC Trust on a variety of media-related matters, and is admired by market sources for her ability to "combine commercial sense and an understanding of her clients' needs with an appreciation of what works in court." 

Significant clients British Olympic Association, Hutchison 3G UK, United Nations Commissioner for Refugees, Professional Standards Authority for Health & Social Care.

Commercial Contracts - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department

- 8 partners
- 20 associates

What the team is known for International law firm with an IT and commercial contract-focused practice. Offers cross-border advice on co-operative agreements, service agreements and regulatory compliance.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Market standing: "A firm that has a very strong, dedicated commercial contracts practice with good clients."

Bench strength: "A real heavy-hitting team." 

What's new? Newly instructed by Almirall on commercial matters.

Notable practitioners

Duncan Reid-Thomas advises on supply, distribution, development and outsourcing agreements, with an emphasis on the technology and industrial sectors. Peers recognise him as "a very experienced commercial contracts lawyer."

Significant clients Abercrombie & Fitch, Porsche, Google, Carlsberg, Colt.

Construction - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 6 partners
- 20 associates 

What the team is known for Provides services in contentious and non-contentious matters on large-scale projects, particularly in the energy sector. The firm also has an impressive global footprint. 

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Commercial awareness: "They know their stuff, but, more importantly, their business sense is quite astute and they are sensitive to clients' specific issues."

International capability: "They have a significant network of overseas offices."

What's new? Construction arbitration specialist Steve Abraham joined the London team from Norton Rose. 

Work highlights Acted for Korea Electric Power on the development of a nuclear power plant in UAE.

Advised Diaz Wind on the development of the first wind project in Namibia. 

Notable practitioners  

Jeremy Winter has "one of the sharpest and finest brains in the industry," according to sources. He is a specialist in dispute resolution for construction-related matters, particularly international arbitration cases.

Significant clients Ma'aden, SOCAR, Sonangol, Southern Water, ENI. 

Data Protection - UK-wide

What the team is known for Ability to co-ordinate significant cross-border projects thanks to the firm's large global footprint, particularly for MNCs and finance sector clients. 

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
International capability: "The team is present in most of the countries our project covers. That is our core reason for instructing Bakers."

Commercial awareness: "The team is really good. We found them to be really commercially minded."  

Notable practitioners  

Christina Demetriades heads the department.

Significant clients Abercrombie & Fitch, Google, L'Oréal, Porsche, Unilever.

Employee Share Schemes & Incentives - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department

- 1 partner
- 5 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A globally integrated team that frequently drafts and implements international employee share plans. Regularly assists clients on compliance with the FSA remuneration code.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
International capability: "They have a very strong international practice and an impressive variety of work."

Client service: "The support that they offer us is immense."

Work highlights Advised Ensco on the share incentive aspects of its redomestication to the UK.

Assisted Smith & Nephew with the global implementation of its new international sharesave plan.

Notable practitioners  

Practice leader Jeremy Edwards earns approbation for his familiarity with international share plans. "His all-round knowledge of the field is immense," said one client, adding: "He doesn't go for the hard sell - he's helpful and informative."

Alasdair Friend remains integral to the group's cross-border offering. He recently assisted Catlin Group with the launch of international share plans.

Significant clients Deutsche Bank, Invensys, Oracle, Siemens, Henderson Group.

Energy & Natural Resources - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department

- 15 partners
- 29 other qualified lawyers
- 44 other fee earners/legal professionals

What the team is known for Broad energy and natural resources practice with a deep bench of experts in project finance and M&A transactions. Active global nuclear practice handling significant deals worldwide.

Strengths (Mainly quotes from clients)
Industry knowledge: "We were very satisfied with their knowledge and expertise. They knew the area and were able to spot issues, which they brought to our attention."

Problem solving: "They've been a real pleasure to work with. The best lawyers I've worked with in terms of business sense, problem solving and sensitivity to transaction initiatives."

What's new? The firm welcomed Steve Abraham, a partner in the dispute resolution practice with a focus on energy disputes.

Work highlights Acted for Sonangol in connection with the development of the Sonaref Refinery Project, near Lobito, Angola

Represented Magyar Villamos Művek in relation to new nuclear units in development in Hungary and the associated public procurement requirements and preparation of tender documentation.

Notable practitioners

Hugh Stewart is the key contact at the firm.

Significant clients CNOOC, Alliance Oil, KEPCO, E.ON, Southern Water.

Energy & Natural Resources - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 12 partners
- 30 associates
- 32 other fee earners/legal professionals

What the team is known for Part of the firm's global project network advising on mining matters all over the world. Particular focus on project development in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

Notable practitioners  

Richard Blunt is considered to be "a great commercial mining lawyer" by one client, who states: "Richard has a very good legal mind and he's very pragmatic. He's often a few steps ahead of you when it comes to a transaction."

Significant clients Ma'aden, Rio Tinto, Turquoise Hill Resources, Yara, Macquarie.

Environment - UK-wide

What the team is known for Advises clients on carbon trading matters and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. Also, advises on emissions reduction programmes.

Work highlights Advised Standard Bank on the management of CDM projects and carbon on-sale arrangements.

Advised Climate Change Capital and Bunge in the management of CDM projects and carbon on-sale arrangements.

Notable practitioners 

Graham Stuart heads the firm's environmental markets group. He advises clients on carbon trading and CDM projects. Sources say: "He is very accessible and responsive. He has a sense of proportion about what is material and what isn't, he has good judgement and he is very client friendly."

Significant clients CF Partners/CF Carbon Fund, Macquarie Bank, Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute, Norwegian Ministry of Finance, Asian Development Bank.

Financial Services - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 1 partner
- 8 other qualified lawyers
- Office locations ranked: London

What the team is known for Draws upon a strong international network of financial services specialists with comprehensive coverage around the world, enabling an integrated service on cross-border matters. Offers significant expertise in contentious regulatory issues, particularly those involving client money.

Work highlights Acted on behalf of the trustees of the Merchant Navy Officers Pension Fund, advising on a large bulk annuity transaction that involved securing £680 million of members' pension benefits.  

Advised American Express in connection with the development of inventory laws applicable to its global business, including data protection, electronic banking and anti-money laundering.

Notable practitioners  

Arun Srivastava is described by sources as "remarkably calm" and "very detail-focused." He is experienced in handling both contentious and non-contentious financial services matters.

Interviewees find that Georgia Chrysikopoulou is "very client-focused, receptive, proactive and detail-focused." She focuses on non-contentious matters, with particular expertise in securities.

Franchising - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 5 partners
- 31 other qualified lawyers
- Recommended office locations: London

What the team is known for Known for cross-border intellectual property and licensing work for international brand owners. Local expertise in many jurisdictions. Key clients include hotels and logistics companies.

What's new? Michelle Blunt now heads the team, following the departure of Ilana Saltzman.

Notable practitioners 
Michelle Blunt is a key contact. 

Significant clients Porsche UK, Carlsberg, The Body Shop.

Investment Funds - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department

- 7 partners
- 19 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Benefits from a strong global practice, attracting an extensive base of international funds. Regularly handling emerging markets and sovereign wealth funds and becoming increasingly visible in the real estate investment market.   

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Problem solving: "Very professional - one of the few law firms in my experience who are actually listening to the client and understanding what the problem is."

Industry knowledge: "Good knowledge of the market and a commercial understanding of what is achievable." 

Work highlights Advised Employees Provident Fund (Malaysia) on the structuring of a fund to provide investment into selected UK hospital properties.

Acted on behalf of AXA Private Equity on a series of secondary transactions, including the USD850 million acquisition from OMERS Private Equity of a portfolio of funds interests.

Notable practitioners  

Sources emphasise James Burdett's knowledge of his subject area, noting that he is "very commercial and familiar with the private equity sector." His personable approach also warms clients to him: "He can explain the legal and commercial issues we are facing very well and he is good at explaining to the clients."

Priya Kumar is a talented associate with "lots of experience" in the private funds arena. Market commentators also note that she is "very approachable." 

Significant clients China Investment Corporation, SVG Capital, Citadel Capital, Griffin Capital Management, Orbio.

Media & Entertainment - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 14 partners
- 26 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Handles digital content, advertising and film and television matters, complemented by the firm's focus on the interface between technology and the law.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Commercial awareness: "We have been very impressed. We wanted the commercial sense and scale that a big firm can give."

Commercial awareness: "They have a very commercial perspective which is invaluable."

Work highlights Advised Pinterest on data protection, e-commerce, IP, marketing and general digital media issues, as well as a passing-off litigation in the UK.

Advised Warner Bros. with regard to the UK and European launch of its Ultraviolet Digital Locker 2.0 service, a cloud-based platform for storage and distribution of films.

Notable practitioners  

Ben Allgrove practises at the cutting edge of developments in digital content exploitation and protection across various media sectors. Sources say he "has fantastic knowledge of copyright issues, great industry knowledge and knows how to apply law to practical problems."

Sources praise the "great practical advice" Steve Holmes confers, and think highly of him for the innovative technology companies he represents, many of which are market leaders in computer games and digital broadcasting.

Significant clients Arqiva, FremantleMedia, L'Oréal, Netflix, Carlsberg.

Outsourcing - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department

- 5 partners
- 20 associates
- Office locations ranked: London 

What the team is known for Known for handling high-profile transactions for the private sector. Also noted for its commercial dispute resolution work. Renowned expertise in the telecoms and technology sectors.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Commercial awareness: "The firm understands relationships and the value of understanding our business.  The team lives the issues with us and moves with us as our business moves forward."

Client service: "Negotiations were conducted in a reasonable, pragmatic way which set the tone of the relationship between us and the other party."

Industry knowledge: "Partners have insight into market practice which gave us a feel for what was happening on the market. We could draw on the team's experience to find alternatives when we were reaching a difficult impasse."

Notable practitioners  

Steve Holmes has a customer-side focus in the technology, media and communication sectors. Clients highlight his personable and user-friendly negotiation style, saying: "His knowledge of the market and the middle ground is invaluable."

David Halliday assists clients with disputes that arise from outsourcing transactions, as well as renegotiations and negotiated exits. Clients say: "He is extremely rigorous and adept at analysing the detail. He is always able to steer a path."

Harry Small enjoys a solid reputation for his work in sensitive renegotiations for IT and technology providers. Clients emphasise his approach, with one noting: "He can look at problems in a novel way. He is a safe pair of hands who thinks about the best interests of his client."

Significant clients Accenture, Fujitsu, Hewlett-Packard, Hutchison 3G, Virgin Media.

Pensions Litigation - UK-wide

What the team is known for Well known for its expertise in complex High Court litigation. Comprised of highly regarded specialists from the firm's pensions and commercial litigation groups.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Market standing: "Bakers has a fantastic international litigation practice."

Work highlights Defended Sydney-based corporate advisers Pitt Capital Partners against allegations of unlawful means conspiracy and dishonest assistance for its role in the fraudulent distribution of funds from various UK pension schemes.

Continues to advise the trustee of the Merchant Navy Officers Pension Fund on various contentious issues, including the possibility of recovering contributions from UK and overseas employers to remedy a scheme-wide deficit.

Notable practitioners  

Robert West is the key contact.

Significant clients IMG (representative beneficiary), The Olympic Airlines SA Pension and Life Assurance Scheme trustees.

Private Client - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 5 partners
- 16 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A litigation powerhouse specialising in international trust and succession disputes. Typically represents trustees and institutional clients, including high-profile banks and trust companies. Leverages an impressive global footprint.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Technical ability: "The team is exceptional – we are impressed with its technical ability, responsiveness and willingness to go above and beyond what is required."

International capability: "It is a great firm with great people, and they have a strong international network to draw on." 

Work highlights Involved in the high-profile international Pitt Capital Partners case, where it defended a financial advisory firm against a claim by trustees of misappropriated fund assets.

Acts for the Merchant Navy Officers Pension Fund, advising trustees on their fiduciary duties and on the recovery of deficit contributions.

Notable practitioners  

Anthony Poulton enjoys an enviable position as a leading lawyer for international trust disputes, with one enthusiastic client commenting: "He is my favourite lawyer in the entire world to work with – he always goes beyond my expectations." He acts for trustees, beneficiaries and other parties in high-profile offshore litigation.

Seasoned litigator Andrew Keltie is typically associated with high-value family trust disputes and has ample experience of representing institutional trustees. Sources attest to his comprehensive knowledge.

Gemma Willingham is a rising star in the contentious trusts space, regularly advising and representing both trustees and beneficiaries in numerous high-profile cases. Her practice is developing a prominent focus on offshore matters. Observers describe her as "incredibly talented, hard-working and a delight to be around."

Significant clients Barclays Wealth, Grupo Torras. 

Private Equity - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 20 partners
- 21 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Established and growing international reach of the firm makes the well-respected London team a favoured choice for clients on complex cross-border transactions.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Responsiveness: "They were highly responsive and open, and always tried to address my needs and concerns."

International capability: "The ability to wrap up all the international aspects of their legal advice into one package is highly attractive."

Commercial awareness: "The firm knows how our company operates and uses that experience well in the transactions."

Work highlights Represented the management of Global Blue in the sale of the company to Silver Lake and Partners Group for EUR1 billion.

Advised Carlyle on its acquisition of a 30% stake in Penti, a cross-border deal calling on the firm's resources in Turkey.

Notable practitioners  

David Allen is "enormously focused" and "comes up with creative solutions," according to impressed interviewees. He advised a consortium led by Access Capital Advisors on the acquisition of 70% of LBC Terminals.

Significant clients AXA Private Equity, STAR Capital, CVC Capital, Novator, MerchantBridge.

Product Liability - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 6 partners
- 10 associates

What the team is known for Serves an impressive and growing client base of global businesses. Offers strategic advice on product recall and damage control.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Problem solving: "We relied heavily on their expertise, guidance and strategic advice. It was very good and in areas where we did have the in-house expertise it was a great addition to have them with us. Really excellent."

What's new? The firm gained new clients Bose and Stryker.

The team was appointed to the panels of Cardinal Health and Carlsberg.

Work highlights Acted in defence of CR Bard in the early stages of a potential group action regarding a product and procedure for the treatment of female pelvic organ prolapse, which the claimants allege to be defective.

Advised Bose on the global recall of a home theatre product and project-managed the notification of regulators in all the affected countries, about three quarters of the 85 countries in which the product was sold.

Notable practitioners  

John Leadley is particularly skilled in product recall and risk management. He receives strong feedback from sources, who identify him as "a doyen of the defendant product liability world. He has a very fine legal mind, a robust commercial sense and a great practical take on both the minutiae and the broad strategy of litigation. You'd want Leadley on your side!"

Significant clients Sony, Calvin Klein, Starbucks, Logitech, Body Shop.

Professional Discipline - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department

- 5 partners
- 7 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A medium-sized group offering professional discipline expertise to professionals in the legal services, healthcare and sporting sectors.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Market standing: "Baker & McKenzie handles high-octane allegations of professional misconduct."

Work highlights Successfully represented the British Olympic Association in its appeal against the World Anti-Doping Agency, which considered WADA's decision to disqualify drugs cheats from Team GB at the London 2012 Olympics.

Notable practitioners  

Thomas Cassels heads the firm's administrative and public law group and is highly regarded within this field. Sources say: "He is a great tactician and really good with clients. He is brilliant at running a team and selecting the right strategy as well as managing opponents, which is an underrated skill."

Significant clients Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care, FIFA, British Olympic Association.

Public Procurement - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department

- 4 partners
- 4 others qualified lawyers
- Office locations ranked: London

What the team is known for Provides advice to a broad range of private clients tendering for procurement contracts with central government ministries.  

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Highly regarded for experience in advising highly regulated industries.

Notable practitioners  

The practice is led by Ross Denton.

Sports Law - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department
- 14 partners
- 15 associates

What the team is known for Advises sporting clients on EU and UK competition and regulatory matters and across numerous commercial cases. Also active representing clients in anti-counterfeiting and brand protection matters.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Breadth of services: "They have a broad practice with the ability to cover all aspects of a sporting matter and they do it well." 

Work highlights Instructed by the British Olympic Association to defend WADA's challenge of its bylaw on the eligibility of deliberate drugs cheats to compete for the British Olympic Team.

Advised Nike on competition and regulatory issues regarding LOCOG's Olympic rules and how they affect Nike's athlete sponsorship arrangements.

Notable practitioners  

Keith Jones is the head of the firm's sports group.

Significant clients McLaren Racing, British Olympic Association, FA Premier League, UEFA, FIFA.

Telecommunications - UK-wide

Basic facts about the department

- 16 partners
- 19 other qualified lawyers 

What the team is known for Positioned comfortably as a market leader handling major telecoms transactions as well as related outsourcing and regulatory matters. Also active in telecoms litigation. 

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Clarity: "They are willing to adopt flexible ways of providing service. It makes a difference to us not to have a firm insisting on always providing full academic, densely worded legal advice; sometimes we just want the advice over the phone and make our own note of it."

Commercial awareness: "The team knows our business well and is at ease engaging with people at all levels in our business."

Efficiency: "I certainly rate it for commercial work as a very efficient team and aggressive in a good sense." 

Work highlights Represented Arqiva in its bid to provide communication support for the national Smart Metering Implementation Programme. 

Obtained successful results for Hutchison 3G in the Court of Appeal and CAT with reference to spectrum auction, non-geographic termination rates and 'flip-flopping' pricing cases.

Notable practitioners  

Practice head Peter Strivens brings expertise in joint ventures, investments and M&A to the team. He has an outstanding reputation amongst peers, who have high regard for his active presence, with one interviewee stating frankly: "He is someone I continue to admire." Strivens's wealth of experience has secured him key cross-border mandates.

The "terrific" Robbie Downing is a pioneer in VoIP-based services. Clients commend his ability to "translate the techy issues into layman's language." He is also praised for giving pragmatic advice that is relevant to business demands.

Interviewees recognise Steve Holmes as being "excellent in negotiations, personable and friendly." In addition to his vast outsourcing experience, he advises on mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) arrangements. Clients appreciate his "collaborative and reasonable" approach.

Duncan Reid-Thomas "has an excellent grasp of commercial, financial and regulatory considerations." In addition to specialising in outsourcing, he has recently provided legal advice on telecoms broadcasting . His key clients include Alfa Laval and Arqiva.

Keith Jones is a noted litigator and competition law expert who counts Virgin Media and Cable & Wireless amongst his clients. Peers speak highly of his active presence in CAT appeals.

Significant clients Arqiva, Cable & Wireless, Telefónica Digital, Virgin Media.