• You are now in...

Dorsey & Whitney LLP

Minneapolis

  • 50 South Sixth Street
  • Suite 1500
  • Minneapolis
  • Minnesota
  • USA
  • MN 55402-1498
  • Tel:+1 612 340 2600
  • Fax:+1 612 340 2868
  • Email:Contact Us
  • Web:Visit website
  • Managing Partner: Ken Cutler
  • Number of US partners: 248
  • Number of other US lawyers: 264
  • www.dorsey.com

Firm Overview:
Dorsey supports clients in a wide range of industries and sectors including healthcare and life sciences, energy, natural resources, agribusiness,manufacturing, financial services, technology and retail.

Main Areas of Practice: 

Corporate:
Dorsey provides an array of corporate legal and transaction services to clients ranging from start-ups to multinational corporations. For over a decade, the firm has been ranked among the top ten US law firms by Thomson Financial for completed M&A transactions. Dorsey’s M&A clients include a range of Fortune 500 companies including UnitedHealth Group, U.S. Bancorp, Canon, General Mills, and Hormel Foods. The firm’s expertise also includes assisting clients with capital raising such as complex registered debt offerings. International activities include Canadian cross-border transactions as well as US securities work on offerings overseas. The firm provides securities compliance and corporate governance counsel to numerous public companies. Dorsey’s emerging companies practice represents numerous medical device and other technology companies and the firm’s Energy Group supports financings for a variety of alternative energy facilities as well as traditional energy producers and distributors. The Bankruptcy and Restructuring Group has extensive experience representing debtors, creditors, lenders, and other participants in reorganization, liquidation and workout proceedings.Dorsey has a focus on heathcare legal issues and is positioned to provide unique deep knowledge perspective with important clients in key segments of healthcare including medical technology and services, payor organizations, care providers, and venture and early stage investors.

Litigation:
The Litigation Practice represents a wide range of businesses and organizations including multinational corporations,medical institutions, small businesses, government, and individuals in all forms of dispute resolution. The firm’s attorneys have broad experience in litigation, arbitration, mediation and negotiation in matters involving financial institutions, construction and real estate, employment, commercial, environmental, ERISA, franchise, fraud, health law, intellectual property, international disputes, product liability, securities, tax, and white-collar crime. Dorsey has a long history of success for its clients across a wide range of forums and jurisdictions.

Labor & Employment Law:
More than 70 attorneys in the United States, Europe and China offer an array of services including employment law training, alternative dispute resolution, labor-management relations advice and litigation, administrative audit and crisis management consulting, and immigration law counsel. The firm also provides advice and counsel on executive and employment compensation law, M&A employment support, employee benefits, ERISA compliance, and taxation law. The firm’s lawsuit defense experience crosses a wide range of litigation matters including class action lawsuits, sexual harassment and employment discrimination, wage and hour collective actions, trade secret protection and non-compete enforcement.

Intellectual Property:
Dorsey’s Patent Prosecution, Portfolio Strategy and Management Group is staffed with attorneys skilled in technical fields,with many holding PhD and/or EE degrees. It helps clients protect and leverage critical intellectual property. Clients rely on Dorsey’s Trademark, Copyright, Advertising and Brand Management Group to select, protect and enforce trademarks, copyrights and domain names. Both groups work with clients to build and protect strategic intellectual property portfolios and aggressively defend them against competitors including through litigation when necessary. Dorsey represents clients in courtrooms and before regulatory bodies in patent infringement, trade secret, trademark infringement and dilution, unfair competition, trade dress protection and copyright infringement cases.

Indian and Gaming:
Dorsey’s nationally ranked Indian and Gaming practice serves Indian and Alaska Native tribal governments, their commercial entities, and lenders, developers and others doing business with tribes on issues of economic diversification, financing (both taxable and tax-exempt), project development, taxation, litigation, environmental affairs, and regulatory compliance.

International Work:
In over 60 countries,Dorsey provides clients with expertise on matters including cross-border transactions, corporate advice, complex litigation, capital markets, M&A, joint ventures, intellectual property, immigration, tax litigation and arbitration, export controls, licensing agreements and international treaties.

Branches

  • 1031 West 4th Avenue,
  • Suite 600,
  • Anchorage,
  • Alaska
  • USA
  • AK 99501-5907
  • Tel 907 276 4557
  • Fax 907 276 4152
  • Email : anchorage@dorsey.com
  • 305 Lytton Avenue,
  • Palo Alto,
  • California
  • USA
  • CA 94301
  • Tel 650 857 1717
  • Fax 650 857 1288
  • Email : paloalto@dorsey.com
  • Plaza Tower,
  • 600 Anton Boulevard,
  • Suite 2000,
  • Costa Mesa,
  • California
  • USA
  • CA 92626
  • Tel 714 800 1400
  • Fax 714 800 1499
  • Email : socal@dorsey.com
  • Suite 400,
  • 1400 Wewatta St.,
  • Denver,
  • Colorado
  • USA
  • CO 80202-5549
  • Tel 303 629 3400
  • Fax 303 629 3450
  • Email : denver@dorsey.com
  • 300 Delaware Ave,
  • Suite 1010,
  • Wilmington,
  • Delaware
  • USA
  • DE 19801
  • Tel 302 425 7171
  • Fax 302 425 7177
  • Email : delaware@dorsey.com
  • 801 Grand,
  • Suite #4100,
  • Des Moines,
  • Iowa
  • USA
  • IA 50309-2790
  • Tel 515 283 1000
  • Fax 515 283 1060
  • Email : desmoines@dorsey.com
  • 3203 32nd Avenue South,
  • Suite 103,
  • PO Box 1344,
  • Fargo,
  • North Dakota
  • USA
  • ND 58107-1344
  • Tel 701 235 6000
  • Fax 701 235 9969
  • Email : fargo@dorsey.com
  • 125 Bank Street,
  • Millennium Building,
  • Suite 600,
  • Missoula,
  • Montana
  • USA
  • MT 59802-4407
  • Tel 406 721 6025
  • Fax 406 543 0863
  • Email : missoula@dorsey.com
  • 51 West 52nd Street,
  • New York,
  • USA
  • NY 10019-6119
  • Tel 212 415 9200
  • Fax 212 953 7201
  • Email : newyork@dorsey.com
  • Kearns Building,
  • 136 South Main Street,
  • Suite 100,
  • Salt Lake City,
  • Utah
  • USA
  • UT 84101-1655
  • Tel 801 933 7360
  • Fax 801 933 7373
  • Email : saltlakecity@dorsey.com
  • Columbia Center,
  • 701 Fifth Ave,
  • Suite 6100,
  • Seattle,
  • Washington
  • USA
  • WA 98104-7043
  • Tel 206 903 8800
  • Fax 206 903 8820
  • Email : seattle@dorsey.com
  • 1801 K Street NW,
  • Suite 750,
  • Washington, DC,
  • District of Columbia
  • USA
  • 20036
  • Tel 202 442 3000
  • Fax 202 442 3199
  • Email : washingtondc@dorsey.com
  • 199 Bishopsgate,
  • London,
  • Greater London
  • UK
  • EC2M 3UT
  • Tel +44 20 7588 0800
  • Fax +44 20 7588 0555
  • DX 33890 Finsbury Square
  • Email : london@dorsey.com

Corporate/M&A - Alaska

THE FIRM Dorsey & Whitney is able to provide interdisciplinary advice due to the team's varied experience and far-reaching capabilities, and it offers counsel for all types of M&A transactions. Among its recent highlights is an M&A transaction for Cruz Holdings.

Sources say: “The firm is professional and dedicated."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Michael Mills is a renowned corporate and bankruptcy lawyer. He recently represented Bristol Bay Native Corporation in an M&A mission lodge acquisition, and also acted for Chenega Corporation in a complicated stock purchase transaction.

Richard Rosston is described by peers as a “great practitioner with a lot of knowledge of finance and corporate transactions.” He is a recognized expert in the field and has led major financing transactions as well as a number of M&A matters.

Spencer Sneed is a top name in the field. He focuses on financing transactions as well as commercial and gas and oil litigation. He recently represented Alaska Central Express in an aircraft acquisition and financing transaction.

Litigation - Alaska

THE FIRM Dorsey & Whitney's strong litigation practice has a preeminent position in handling complex commercial disputes. The team has expertise in oil and gas and aviation disputes in particular, and maintains long-standing relations with a number of important clients such as Bristol Bay Native Corporation and Alaska Airlines. The firm recently represented ConocoPhillips in a complicated case against the State of Alaska in connection with contract and regulatory issues relating to oil and gas unit leases.

Sources say: "They did a great job and we enjoyed working with them."

KEY INDIVIDUALS The highly reputed Spencer Sneed has a diverse practice covering oil and gas commercial litigation as well as transactional finance work. He recently led in the aforementioned case on behalf of ConocoPhillips. 

“A fine lawyer” and “an excellent litigator,” Robert Bundy handles various types of litigation, from civil to criminal. In addition to his experience in healthcare and environmental matters, he is also a white-collar specialist. His recent highlights include representing Southcentral Foundation, Safeway and Fred Meyer Stores in defense of a qui tam case alleging Medicaid fraud.

Jahna Lindemuth is highly regarded by commentators for her "responsive and thorough" approach, and heads the firm's Anchorage office. She focuses on commercial litigation, and offers particular experience in handling cases at appellate level.

Real Estate - Alaska

THE FIRM Dorsey & Whitney has a leading name in the commercial real estate space, and represents major clients in the area, such as Royal Bank of Canada and Morrison Investments. The team recently represented Doyon in the negotiating, drafting and restructuring of a lease with Alyeska Pipeline Service.

KEY INDIVIDUALS The leading Richard Rosston has a broad-ranging corporate, real estate, M&A, finance, telecom and securities practice. He recently represented Holiday Alaska in litigation concerning environmental and easement matters. 

Intellectual Property - Colorado

THE FIRM This team is well regarded for its work in the IP sphere, and has noted expertise in IP-related litigation. The firm routinely handles patent and trademark prosecution and clearance, brand management and issues surrounding copyright. Recent work includes acting for EC Sagitar on its defense against allegations of misappropriation of trade secrets.

Sources say: "I can always depend upon these lawyers to represent my interests to the fullest extent."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Lee Osman advises clients across the country on issues such as licensing and portfolio development as well as patent matters. This work includes patent prosecution, examining infringement and disclosure systems.

Greg Tamkin is a litigator who is an "excellent writer" and "does extremely well at oral arguments." Clients appreciate the lengths he will go to in order to learn about how a client works in order to better serve their interests. 

Lisa Osman concentrates her practice on matters pertaining to trademarks, including licensing, infringement matters and asset acquisitions.

Litigation - Colorado

THE FIRM This litigation team is retained to advise on a large swath of commercial litigation matters. It is renowned for its substantial expertise on intellectual property matters and has notable experience in oil and gas and securities litigation.

KEY INDIVIDUALS The experienced Tucker Trautman has expertise in all aspects of intellectual property litigation. He further assists clients with securities fraud, antitrust and complex commercial litigation.

Construction - Minnesota

THE FIRM This well-regarded group has wide-ranging construction expertise, with a particular focus on the representation of construction and engineering companies. Its recent experience encompasses energy and utilities, infrastructure and educational projects. The team is also well versed in the niche field of data center construction. Notable clients include URS, UnitedHealth Group and Kraus Anderson Construction.

Sources say: "Fantastic lawyers. They are a top firm in the region and they are extremely well respected."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Steve Champlin is considered "one of the best construction lawyers in the country." He recently defended Aker Kvaerner against over $200 million of claims arising from project delays and cost overruns.

Clients describe Jocelyn Knoll as "smart, conscientious and extremely client-focused." She was recently called upon to act for Aker Kvaerner in the pursuit of over $220 million in claims relating to the construction of a coal-fired power plant.

"Talented litigator" Eric Ruzicka is an up-and-coming construction litigator. He was recently engaged to advise Enclos on a complex multiparty dispute. 

Corporate/M&A - Minnesota

THE FIRM Dorsey & Whitney's corporate group is viewed as one of Minnesota's premier M&A practices. It is particularly active in the medical and healthcare arenas, and recently represented medical device manufacturer Synovis Life Technologies in its $325 million sale to Baxter International. Other key clients include UnitedHealth Group, U.S. Bancorp and Land O'Lakes.

Sources say: "A very efficient, effective, knowledgeable and ethical firm."

KEY INDIVIDUALS "Top-notch lawyer" Kenneth Cutler recently acted for Jobs2Web on its $110 million sale to SuccessFactors. Clients say he "is always up to date, informed and practical, and exhibits maturity and wisdom."

Robert Rosenbaum is an "experienced and astute transactional attorney," say sources. Clients report that he is "a very effective negotiator," who "really understands business objectives."

Clients appreciate that Matthew Knopf is "reasonable and practical in his thinking," "responsive" and "always very well prepared." He leads the firm's M&A practice and has notable experience in the healthcare sector.

Timothy Hearn was lead counsel to Synovis on the disposal described above. Clients say he is "very knowledgeable about legal issues associated with acquiring and being acquired by a third party company," and value his "ability to communicate clearly and effectively."

John Marsalek is also well regarded in the market. He recently acted for Best Buy on its $167 million acquisition of mindSHIFT Technologies.

Labor & Employment - Minnesota

THE FIRM This group is considered one of Minnesota's leading labor and employment practices. It is noted for its extensive class action experience, which encompasses numerous wage and hour and discrimination claims. The team is also active in the areas of trade secret litigation, collective bargaining, workforce reduction and transactional issues. Recent highlights include defending 3M against a nationwide age discrimination class action. In the past year, it has also provided labor and employment counsel to Allianz Life Insurance, Canon and Ameriprise.

Sources say: "On a scale of one to ten, I'd give the Dorsey firm an 11."

KEY INDIVIDUALS "Outstanding" practitioner Douglas Christensen is singled out for his "command" of the law. Clients describe him as "extremely knowledgeable and extremely well prepared." In addition to wage and hour class actions, his practice is increasingly focused on traditional labor matters.

"Excellent lawyer" Melissa Raphan is a well-regarded employment litigator. Her experience includes discrimination, Equal Pay Act and harassment matters.

Joseph Hammell is another much-praised attorney, with one interviewee commenting: "I can't say enough good things about him." Hammell is regularly called upon to represent clients in class action-related litigation.

Litigation - Minnesota

THE FIRM This talented group continues to be considered one of Minnesota's premier litigation practices. It provides market-leading expertise across a broad spectrum of commercial disputes, with a particular focus in the areas of construction, banking, healthcare, energy and agriculture. The team recently prevailed at the Supreme Court on behalf of the National Meat Association in a challenge to provisions of the California Penal Code 599f. Its client roster also includes US Bank, UnitedHealth Group and international engineering company Kvaerner.

Sources say: "I have been pleased with their knowledge, expertise and good customer service – all-around high-quality legal work."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Peter Carter is a "terrific commercial litigator" who is "very reasonable" and "very effective," according to sources. He is cochair of the firm's securities litigation and enforcement practice.

Steve Wells leads the firm's global trial team and is recognized as an impressive advocate with particular expertise in professional malpractice and franchise litigation. He led the team in the aforementioned Supreme Court case for the National Meat Association.

Paul Klaas also has a strong reputation in the market. Recent work highlights include securing a favorable settlement for major potash supplier Mosaic in a complex contractual dispute.

The "much-admired" Roger Magnuson continues to lead the firm's national strategic litigation group. He has an impressive track record for handling high-profile and challenging cases in a broad range of areas, including class actions, securities litigation and white-collar criminal litigation.

George Eck is a "great lawyer" who concentrates his practice on complex commercial litigation and tort litigation. Areas of expertise include insurance coverage, product liability and environmental cases.

Real Estate - Minnesota

THE FIRM This highly regarded group is well equipped to assist clients with a variety of real estate matters. Its practice encompasses acquisition, development, leasing, and sale-and-leaseback transactions, and it has considerable experience advising on office developments. The firm is also recognized for its economic incentive expertise, and recently advised the City of Wayzata on the redevelopment of a retail mall, involving $22 million of tax incentive financing. It also has a number of significant clients in the healthcare sector, including Fairview Health Services.

Sources say: "Good attorneys and very business-oriented."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Star individual Mark Hamel is widely regarded as one of Minnesota's leading real estate experts. Clients observe that he is a "good listener and proactive communicator."

"Terrific" attorney Jay Lindgren has a wealth of experience in real estate development and tax incentives. He was lead counsel to the City of Wayzata on the project described above, and also advised the City of Coralville on a $100 million brownfield redevelopment.

Robert Olson is another well-respected attorney. He handles a broad range of real estate matters, with a particular focus on the healthcare sector.

Corporate/M&A - Montana

THE FIRM Dorsey & Whitney's high-quality corporate and commercial offering in Montana is further bolstered by the talent on hand across the firm's national platform. The lawyers counsel SMEs and local family-owned businesses, regional technology startups, out-of-state investors and a number of oil and gas companies involved in the exploration of the Bakken Formation, one of the nation's largest oil shale patches.

KEY INDIVIDUALS Jack Manning manages the Missoula office. A corporate securities and M&A lawyer, he helps SMEs, private and public, with IPOs and other financing matters, aiming to provide them with high-quality and sophisticated advice. 

Daniel Semmens is an expert at public finance law. He is praised above all for his thorough and helpful manner, and his deep understanding of financing models and bond laws in particular.

Jeremy Brown is an up-and-coming associate. He is experienced across the full range of corporate matters, such as M&A, securities, corporate reorganization and venture capital financing. 

Native American Law - Nationwide

THE FIRM This practice is notable for offering a full Native American law service to both tribal and non-tribal clients nationwide. Key areas of specialization include taxation, financing transactions, employment law and tribal sovereignty issues. Recent work highlights include a notable success on behalf of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe with regard to the taxation of its Foxwoods Casino. In another case, the firm represented Crescent Point Energy in its $800 million acquisition of a largely Indian-owned petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company.

KEY INDIVIDUALS Practice co-head Skip Durocher is described as "an exceptional lawyer" and "excellent litigator" whose combination of federal litigation and Indian law experience constitutes "a consistent and reliable resource." He acted as lead partner in the firm's work for the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe. 

Fellow co-head Mary Streitz is strongly praised by both peers and clients for her "extensive knowledge of tax matters" and their interaction with Native American law. She specializes in the handling of sensitive tax audits and controversies with the IRS. 

Corporate/M&A - New York

THE FIRM This New York team handles transactions for major domestic and international clients, as well as venture growth companies. It draws on support from offices across the USA, including the firm's home base in Minneapolis. Its clients include the North American Soccer League, Canon USA and Banco de la Nacion Argentina. Team highlights include representing IntegraMed America in its $169.5 million sale to Sagard Capital Partners.

Sources say: "Dorsey is a large firm but it feels much smaller, more personable and much easier to deal with."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Clients say department co-leader and New York office head Steven Khadavi is extraordinarily responsive, and report that he "focuses on solutions not problems." He recently represented Chinese company Xuzhou Construction Machine Group in acquiring a controlling interest in German manufacturer Schwing.

Intellectual Property - New York

THE FIRM The IP team at Dorsey handles matters involving patents, copyright and trademarks and other rights, although its reputation is especially high with regard to nonutility rights. This offering is bolstered by its lawyers' relatively rare combination of copyright and trademark expertise and experience at litigating and trying disputes. Clients include Atari Interactive, Boston Beer and Procter & Gamble.

KEY INDIVIDUALS Sandra Edelman heads up Dorsey's worldwide trademarks group. She acts for world-famous brands across a range of industries, and has a particularly strong background in pharmaceuticals branding and its relationship with FDA regulations.

Bruce Ewing leads the firm's New York trial group, and is a seasoned copyright and trademarks litigator. He has recently represented globally recognized brands in the leisure, luxury goods, pharmaceuticals and online entertainment sectors. 

Labor & Employment - North Dakota

THE FIRM This firm continues to be recognized as one of the leading labor and employment shops in North Dakota. The team is particularly noted for its handling of OFCCP and wage and hour matters, and is recognized for its litigation and arbitration expertise. An impressive client roster is drawn from a range of industry sectors, including energy, healthcare and financial services.

Sources say: "We trust them and know that they have our best interests in mind at all times."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Sarah Andrews Herman heads up the firm's Fargo office, and has an exceptional reputation as a labor and employment litigator. Market observers note that her "depth of experience and practice is clearly such that she should be top of the rankings," while clients report that she is "open, honest and willing to do whatever we need to ensure our ends are met."

Corporate/M&A - Utah

THE FIRM This highly regarded firm's Salt Lake City corporate practice retains an impressive standing in the market thanks to its ability to handle the full range of M&A and finance transactions. The group counsels businesses on public offerings and securities, and also assists private equity funds with formation and investment matters. The team is especially noted for its ability to tackle more complex transactional issues such as spin-offs, making it a go-to for some of the largest corporate entities in the state, often handling work that is international in scope. Clients include HSBC Capital, Healthcare Quality Catalyst and Sorenson Capital.

Sources say: "They have been thorough and responsive in providing us with excellent legal advice and experience."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Corporate department head Samuel Gardiner is described as a "very good lawyer." He recently acted for Sorenson Capital on a $20 million preferred stock investment.

Alan Bell earns high praise from clients for his corporate practice, with one source noting: "His expertise on private equity funds is unmatched in this market."

David Marx's corporate practice covers company formation, public offerings, M&A and venture capital financing. "David was always very responsive and thorough, and delivered the highest quality results," said one satisfied client.

Associate David Day focuses his practice on corporate, M&A and securities law. Sources praise "his experience with venture capital financings, attention to detail and ability to do the job."

Litigation - Utah

THE FIRM This firm has the ability to handle a range of commercial disputes with additional expertise in product liability and bankruptcy litigation. The firm's depth gives it the capacity to service clients from various industries including healthcare, real estate and construction.

KEY INDIVIDUALS Previously at Snell & Wilmer, Bryon Benevento brings his product liability and IP expertise to Dorsey's commercial litigation team. Sources say: "Bryon is an ideal litigation attorney. He brings a bulldog mentality balanced with a good practical understanding of the best interests of his clients."

Department head Steven Marsden is described as "a really fine lawyer" and focuses his practice on commercial litigation involving securities and fraud.

Corporate/Commercial - Washington

THE FIRM Dorsey & Whitney's Seattle team is particularly noted in the market for its cross-border Canadian work concerning capital markets and M&A. The firm represents many clients in the mining and cleantech industries, and has managed large deals for NovaGold and Bentall Kennedy. The team has also recently been involved in a series of matters for Kodiak Oil & Gas in relation to high-value acquisitions and public offerings, among other issues.

Sources say: "They're responsible, professional, and they get things done."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Christopher Barry is chair of the firm's Canada practice group and earns praise as an "efficient and knowledgeable" practitioner. He recently served as US counsel to NovaGold in the high-value spin-off of NovaCopper. 

Intellectual Property - Washington

THE FIRM The robust IP practice at Dorsey & Whitney's Seattle office is particularly strong in patent and trademark issues. The team is especially experienced in handling patent litigation pertaining to a broad range of technologies. Clients include Robert Bosch Healthcare Systems, Big Fish Games and Smith Optics.

Sources say: "They provide excellent services in the preparation and prosecution of patent applications with respect to complex electrical inventions." 

KEY INDIVIDUALS Paul Meiklejohn heads the firm's Seattle IP litigation group. He is an experienced litigator who represents a number of significant technology companies in disputes across the country.

Kimton Eng is particularly experienced in patent prosecution, and counsels some of the firm's biggest clients on matters in this area. He is cited by sources as an attorney who produces a "first-rate work product."

Labor & Employment - Washington

THE FIRM The Washington office of international law firm Dorsey & Whitney has the depth and expertise to handle all facets of labor and employment law. The team has been particularly active in discrimination, breach of contract, unfair labor practices and wage and hour disputes in the past year. Major clients include Wells Fargo, LA Fitness and Orbitz Worldwide.

KEY INDIVIDUALS Michael Droke handles wage and hour issues, unfair labor practices and union-management training. He effectively utilizes his background as an HR professional to also offer employment law training and preventive counseling.

Litigation - Washington

THE FIRM Dorsey & Whitney's Seattle office has an effective litigation practice which is particularly experienced in securities disputes, complex commercial cases and class action matters. The team's clients include Bank of America, Wells Fargo and Comcast.

Sources say: "You'll get top service with this firm. I can't say enough good things about the team."

KEY INDIVIDUALS Client favorite Lisa Marchese earns ringing endorsement for her client service and skills as a litigator. "She is one of the top trial lawyers that I've had the privilege of dealing with. Her responsiveness is unreal. She will do anything that is necessary to get the work done for her client," according to clients.