Canada : An Introduction to Environment

Contributed by Bennett Jones LLP

The issues and potential liabilities for environmental matters continue to be important for businesses in Canada, whether for daily operations or new projects. Personal liability has been put in the spotlight. Decisions by regulators issuing orders against insolvent or bankrupt companies have been significantly modified by the courts, and this remains a live issue.

Environmental legislation (statutes and regulations) in Canada is enforced by three levels of government: federal, provincial/territorial and municipal.

Generally, it is an offence to discharge contaminants into the natural environment, and there are reporting obligations that must be complied with when certain discharges or spills occur. Approvals are typically required for activities capable of impacting the environment. It is an offence to cause or permit an unlawful discharge, fail to report in a timely manner, fail to obtain a required approval, or not comply with its terms. Offences can result in significant fines and penalties against companies as well as individuals. Projects can require the assessment of potential environmental impacts, particularly if there is government involvement.

The Nuts and Bolts Legislation 

Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the federal government regulates substances in Canada. This includes imposing requirements for substances that are new to Canada and substances that are considered to be toxic, reporting information relating to the emission of pollutants into the environment, and the interprovincial and international movement of hazardous waste and recyclable materials. There is also federal legislation related to impacts on fish, the protection of species at risk and migratory birds.

The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012 (CEAA) was overhauled in 2012. It now focuses on significant projects that are designated as requiring a legislative assessment, attempts to eliminate duplication between federal and provincial environmental assessments, and imposes timelines for the completion of assessments. Another important federal statute, the Fisheries Act, has undergone significant changes that came into force in 2013. The amendments to the Fisheries Act limit the application of certain protections to only those fish that are part of a recreational, commercial and aboriginal fishery.

Each province (and territory) has environmental protection legislation. For the most part, provincial legislation has the greatest day-to-day impact on businesses.

Typically, provincial legislation, such as Ontario's Environmental Protection Act, imposes requirements to obtain approvals for air or water discharges, and regulates contaminated sites (see below) and matters related to waste (generation, management and disposal). There are many new and emerging initiatives across Canada relating to increased stewardship obligations on producers with respect to waste materials. For example, the environmental regulation of the petroleum, natural gas and coal industries in Alberta has undergone significant change with the establishment of the new Alberta Energy Regulator to assume the former responsibilities of Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development for energy resource development.

Environmental legislation can impose significant penalties for infractions. Enforcement varies across the country, and within each province. In Ontario, maximum penalties can be as high as CAD10 million per day, and prison sentences are available. Minimum penalties have been incorporated into environmental legislation for certain offences. Some jurisdictions have also introduced administrative penalty schemes for environmental infractions.

It's Personal 

There are provisions in environmental legislation across Canada that impose positive duties on officers and directors to take reasonable care to ensure their company complies with environmental law. For example, in Québec, there is legislation that provides that an officer or director of a corporation is presumed to have committed an offence when the company has committed an offence, unless the officer or director can prove that he or she exercised due diligence and took all necessary precautions to prevent the offence.

Local Matters 

Municipalities derive their jurisdiction from provincial governments. On the environmental front, in addition to planning, municipalities have traditionally regulated matters such as noise and sewer use. Municipalities looking to expand their powers in this area have introduced by-laws, for example, that require businesses to report their use of toxic substances (community "right-to-know").

Property Issues, and It's Personal Too 

Provincial legislation, for the most part, regulates contaminated property, including the investigation and remediation of suspected or known contamination. This can involve orders that require work to be done. The provinces have adopted criteria that are used to assess contamination. Some of the criteria are in legislation, while others are guidelines without the force of law on their own. Risk assessment continues to gain acceptance for addressing contamination.

There are live issues related to who is responsible for historic contamination, and these cases increasingly go beyond "polluter pays" to include prior and current owners and persons with control of the property. This is an evolving area, as are the cases related to civil liability and class actions for contamination. We have seen several civil cases this year where the courts have required plaintiffs to prove that reasonable damages have been caused by the defendants to support a compensatory award, rather than simply alleging that contamination exists on a property.

In 2012, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment ordered the former directors of a company to take over the investigation and remediation of a contaminated property that had been managed by the company before it went bankrupt. The orders were appealed in 2013, and ultimately the directors agreed to pay almost CAD5 million to settle with the government. This case has attracted considerable interest amongst officers and directors with respect to potential personal liability for remediation obligations, whether in a bankruptcy scenario or not.

Aboriginal Matters 

The Constitution Act, 1982 protects the aboriginal and treaty rights of aboriginal peoples. The duty to consult and, if appropriate, accommodate, arises when the federal or provincial government has knowledge of aboriginal or treaty rights or traditional uses of land that may be impacted by contemplated governmental action. The Crown's duty to consult exists independently from any statutory obligation or any regulatory process. The scope of consultation depends upon the right and nature of the potential impact.

Climate change  

Existing climate change legislation includes federal and provincial greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting. Legislation requiring reductions in GHG emissions is less common, and compliance-based emissions trading exists only in Alberta. Alberta has implemented a GHG management system that incorporates obligations for large emitters to reduce emissions intensity, and provides trading in excess reductions and the use of and ability to trade offsets.


Although Canadian legislation does not expressly require the implementation of sustainability strategies, directors and officers of Canadian companies are required to act in the best interests of the corporations they serve. This encourages (and arguably requires) business leaders to think broadly about the opportunities and risks their companies face. Many Canadian investors and lenders have come to expect that companies demonstrate a strong and clear commitment to environmental sustainability.

Environment - Canada


第一等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 15 partners

- 10 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for An excellent track record in matters relating to conventional and unconventional gas, oil sands, pipelines, natural resources and renewable energy development. Notable strength in Alberta with a strong focus on LNG projects. Additional expertise includes environmental regulatory law, contaminated sites and prosecution defence.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
 Industry knowledge: "A cohesive group with subject matter expertise that is great and extensive."

Commercial awareness: "I thought they were excellent - very commercially minded, very in favour of getting a transaction done."

Country coverage: "They have strong practitioners in different offices across the country."

Work highlights Acted for Nexen on litigation concerning its water licence in respect of shale gas fracking in British Columbia.

Notable practitioners 

Leonard Griffiths co-heads the department, and enjoys a stellar reputation for his wide-ranging practice in this field. He advises on major projects and transactions as well as litigation and environmental regulatory law, and is singled out for his expertise in relation to contaminated sites.

Gray Taylor is recognised as one of Canada's leading specialists in climate change and emissions trading. He regularly advises on transactions involving emissions trading as well as international voluntary carbon deals.

Brad Gilmour co-heads the team alongside Leonard Griffiths. Sources say: "He is very knowledgeable, approachable, and excellent with clients."

Radha Curpen is praised for her commercial approach. Her practice encompasses environmental risk management, litigation and compliance. One peer enthused: "Radha is extraordinary."

Since publication, Gray E Taylor has joined Gray Taylor Law

第一等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 17 partners

- 8 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A strong and deep national environmental practice with a notable profile in respect of oil and gas development projects and related litigation. The firm is also well known for its involvement in major mining and power projects, and demonstrates significant expertise on water, waste water and species at risk.

Work highlights Represented Nelson Aggregate, a joint venture of Lafarge Canada and Steed Evans, in a 15-month environmental tribunal hearing relating to the development of a new dolomite quarry in the Greater Toronto Area.

Defended Zellstoff Celgar against charges under the Federal Fisheries Act and the provincial Environmental Management Act concerning a pulp mill in Castlegar, British Columbia.

Notable practitioners 

Charles Kazaz has notable experience of environmental law in Québec, with a focus on the mining, forestry and waste management sectors.

In Toronto, Jonathan Kahn is highlighted for his expertise in environmental and municipal law and litigation. In notable work, he represented Nelson Aggregate in the abovementioned tribunal hearing. "He's a good, tough lawyer," say sources.

Tony Crossman joined the firm in September 2014 from Miller Thomson. He is based in Vancouver, from where his environmental practice focuses largely on Western Canada and Yukon.

Calgary partner Duff Harper is part of the Blake team which provides ongoing environmental advice to Suncor Energy. He regularly represents a variety of other clients operating in the oil sands, as well as mining companies and LNG proponents.

Of counsel Janice Walton is recommended for her work on endangered species law. One source commented: "She is acknowledged to be one of the top lawyers in Canada on species legislation."

Significant clients Cliffs Natural Resources, Holcim Canada, Suncor Energy, Kinder Morgan, the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia.

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 24 partners

- 14 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Highly regarded for environmental regulatory law, project development and related litigation. Has notable experience in matters involving the mining sector, and significant cross-country coverage. Offers additional expertise in environmental assessment and permitting, waste management, climate change and carbon trading.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
High-end delivery: "The client service is excellent."

Work highlights Acted for Alexco Resource in connection with the environmental assessment and permitting for three mines in Yukon.

Notable practitioners

Rosalind Cooper is singled out for her wide-ranging practice, which encompasses environmental regulatory law, litigation and transactions. Sources say: "She is timely, knowledgeable and provides practical advice."

Paul Wilson is the head of the group, and is rated for his extensive involvement in natural resource project permitting and approval processes.

Significant clients Kruger Energy.

Band 2 | Gowlings

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 8 partners

- 6 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A highly specialised team which focuses on environmental matters, across a range of disciplines. Significant experience in relation to chemicals, water and waste water matters and municipal law. 

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Market standing: "They've had a fabulous environmental law department for a very long time."

Proactive: "I would definitely use them again - they were really on the ball from day one."

Work highlights Acted for the Waste Management Corporation of Canada on an appeal before the Environmental Review Tribunal brought by the Concerned Citizens of Tyendinaga & Environs in relation to the expansion of the Richmond (Napanee) Landfill site.

Advised an affiliate of Nova Scotia Power on the environmental assessment approvals required from the governments of Canada, Newfoundland & Labrador and Nova Scotia in relation to the construction of an underwater transmission line.

Notable practitioners 

Harry Dahme is the head of Gowlings' national environmental practice group. He is recognised for his experience in matters relating to waste management, chemicals, contaminated sites and brownfields redevelopment.

Mark Madras leads the firm's real estate, environment and urban development department in Toronto. His expertise encompasses contaminated land disputes, climate law and emergency preparedness and response, among other areas of specialism.

David Estrin is well known for his long-standing contributions to the field of environmental law in Ontario. He recently acted for the City of Hamilton on a claim against the government of Canada concerning the construction of an expressway.

Significant clients Imperial Oil, Metrolinx, Greenergy Fuels Canada, Hanson Brick, City of Kawartha Lakes.

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 5 partners

- 6 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A focus on the environmental aspects of major projects across a cross-section of industries including mining, waste management, renewable energy and pulp and paper. The firm is also a notable force in environmental litigation.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
 Industry knowledge: "They have a very thorough understanding not only of our industry but of who we are and how we approach things."  

Resources: "They have a very strong team to help out on commercial litigation."

What's new? Environmental development specialist Pierre Renaud joined the firm in January 2013 as the head of the environmental group in Québec. President of the bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement (BAPE) from 2007 to 2012, Renaud also formerly served as legal adviser to both Hydro-Québec and the Québec Ministry of the Environment.

Work highlights Advised Invenergy Wind on the project financing for the Des Moulins energy project.

Notable practitioners  

Douglas Thomson continues to represent Stillwater Mining in a joint provincial-federal review panel environmental assessment hearing concerning the development of a platinum mine in northern Ontario. Sources say: "He is an excellent adviser - a real first-class professional."

Paul Cassidy joined the firm in April 2014 from Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP. He advises on environmental matters across a broad spectrum of industries including oil and gas, mining, forestry and transportation. One source said: "I've never met anybody in any profession who's as good as he is at what they do."

Department head Douglas Hamilton is singled out for his technical background in biology and chemistry, which sources view as a strong asset to his practice. He regularly advises on criminal litigation relating to environmental law, health and safety. One source enthused: "Doug has an intimate knowledge of environmental issues."

Nicholas Hughes is the co-chair of the firm's national mining litigation group. He acted as environmental lead in respect of Rio Tinto's acquisition of Hathor Exploration.

Significant clients Vale, US Steel, Port Metro Vancouver, Miller Waste Systems, Canadian National Railway.

Since publication, Douglas Thomson has retired from this practice.

Band 2 | Torys LLP

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 7 partners

- 6 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Renewable energy project development and related litigation. The firm also advises on climate change law and the environmental implications of M&A, finance and REIT transactions.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
 Market standing: "They are the best group I've worked with in Canada. A terrific firm with lots and lots of resources."

Breadth of services: "They are a very complete team."

Notable practitioners  

Dennis Mahony is "an amazing resource - he is both deeply thoughtful about the needs of our business and unbelievable in terms of his general knowledge of case law." He is best known for his transactions practice, which covers projects and infrastructure, M&A and emissions trading. One interviewee said: "Dennis is so on top of his game that having him on our team almost feels like an unfair advantage."

Michael Fortier regularly advises on the environmental law aspects of REIT offerings. His contentious practice encompasses approval hearings, civil litigation and ADR. Sources say: "He is very enthusiastic and very bright."

Market commentators are unanimous in their praise of associate Tyson Dyck as an "up-and-coming star."

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 4 partners

- 2 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Advice on environmental assessment and permitting issues for large projects and on the environmental implications of other commercial transactions, as well as related litigation. Significant strength in Ontario and Québec, with a focus on the mining and renewable energy sectors.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Efficiency: "They are very focused, driven and practical advisers."

Work highlights Acted for Samsung Renewable Energy and Pattern Energy on their appeals to the Environmental Review Tribunal for the approvals for wind energy projects.

Acted for BHP Billiton on the sale of its diamond business, including matters concerning environmental agreements with federal and territorial governments and Aboriginal groups.

Notable practitioners  

Sarah Powell is regarded as "a leader in the area of environmental permitting and litigation." She is praised as "a strong advocate who provides invaluable advice."

Alexandria Pike is "an extraordinary litigator and strategist," sources agree. One client added: "Her commitment to service is exemplary and highly impressive. She has an amazing ability to communicate simply and clearly."

Significant clients Barrick, CIBC World Markets, Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, Shaw Communications, Amcor.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 8 partners

- 8 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A long history advising on major project development in Western Canada and the North. A strong focus and expertise in environmental assessment and permitting. Other areas of service include hazardous waste management and contaminated site remediation.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Market standing: "They are among the experts in First Nations and environmental law in Vancouver." 

Industry knowledge: "I would recommend them to any mining or industrial company working in the North."

Work highlights Represented Hope Bay Mining and Newmont Mining in connection with the sale of the Doris North Project underground gold mine to TMAC Resources.

Continues to act for Baffinland Iron Mines on the environmental assessment and regulatory approvals required for the Mary River Project in Nunavut.

Notable practitioners  

Brad Armstrong QC is a "well-prepared, detailed person and a strategic thinker - a strong lead on environmental permitting matters." He advised Capstone Mining on the renewal of a water licence in relation to the development of the Minto Mine, located in part on Selkirk First Nation territory.

Clifford Proudfoot serves as legal counsel to the British Columbia Oil & Gas Commission, as well as a number of commercial clients. In 2012 he advised on a wide range of matters relating to the regulation of oil and gas in British Columbia. 

Significant clients New Gold, Walter Energy, BC Hydro, Lehigh Hanson Materials, Diavik Diamond Mines.

第三等 |

What the team is known for Highly specialised expertise and experience across a broad spectrum of environmental matters. Advising exclusively on energy, environmental and Aboriginal law, the firm handles prosecution defence, environmental due diligence, brownfields redevelopment, contaminated site remediation, environmental assessment and land use planning.

What's new? The firm opened an office in Ottawa in January 2013. Formerly of Fogler Rubinoff LLP, Charles Birchall joined the firm as the head of the new office. Birchall currently serves as the chair of the Canadian Bar Association's national environmental, energy and resources law section.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Market standing: "One of the best in Canada for environmental law and practice."

Notable practitioners  

Marc McAree regularly features on contaminated land cases. He represents municipalities, property managers, landlords and insurers, among others.

Donna Shier has more than 30 years' experience advising on environmental law in Canada, with a focus on the management, remediation and redevelopment of contaminated sites.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 21 partners

- 9 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A significant focus on environmental litigation and oil and gas projects in Western Canada. The firm continues to build its practice in Ontario and Québec.

Notable practitioners  

Vancouver partner Deborah Overholt advises on environmental due diligence, compliance, permitting and impact assessment as well as contaminated sites issues. Sources say: "She knows this area very well."

Significant clients Husky Oil, Teck Coal, NWT Power, North 60 Petro.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 17 partners

- 16 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Well regarded for handling the environmental implications of major projects in Alberta, including pipelines, and mineral and oil sands developments. In Toronto, the group advises on waste and waste water issues and contaminated sites.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Track record: "They have a huge depth of experience in Alberta."

What's new? Formerly Fraser Milner Casgrain LLP, the firm combined with Salans LLP and SNR Denton in April 2013.

Work highlights Acted for Morguard Investments on the environmental remediation of one of its properties.

Notable practitioners  

Richard Neufeld QC enjoys a strong reputation in the field in relation to his ongoing work on the Northern Gateway Pipeline project. He operates a practice which spans environmental, Aboriginal and regulatory law, and sources view him as "one of the best regulatory lawyers in the country."

Alex MacWilliam is the head of the department. He advised BP Canada on the CAD1.67 billion sale of its natural gas liquids business to Plains Midstream.

Significant clients Enbridge, Syncrude, EPCOR, Capital Power, Nexen.

Band 4 | McInnes Cooper

第四等 |

What the team is known for Depth and breadth of expertise across Atlantic Canada. Notable experience in environmental assessment and permitting in connection with project development, including in the mining, oil and gas and renewable energy sectors.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
Market standing: "The strongest environmental practice in Atlantic Canada."

Notable practitioners  

Based in St John's, James Thistle's environmental practice focuses on public law litigation and natural resources law. Source say: "He is a key figure in the offshore oil industry."

第四等 |

What the team is known for A standalone environmental practice within a full-service firm, with specialists based in Vancouver, Toronto and Markham. Areas of service include environmental civil litigation, brownfields redevelopment and contaminated sites, compliance, waste management and D&O liability.

Notable practitioners  

In Markham, John Tidball regularly represents Ontario municipalities and industrial companies in relation to contaminated sites and brownfields redevelopment.

Since publication, Tony Crossman has joined Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 10 partners

- 6 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Highly regarded for resource development work, including mining, oil and gas and renewable energy, and related litigation. The firm also advises on the environmental implications of commercial energy deals. It is especially highlighted for its prominence in Québec.

What's new? The Norton Rose Group merged with US-based Fulbright & Jaworski LLP in June 2013 to form Norton Rose Fulbright.

Work highlights Acted for ArcelorMittal on the CAD1.1 billion sale of a 15% joint venture interest in its flagship iron ore mine to a consortium of Korean and Taiwanese investors.

Represented Terminal Norcan in a lawsuit concerning soil contamination on the property of the Montréal Port Authority.

Notable practitioners  

Jean Piette is one of the foremost environmental lawyers in Québec. He regularly advises on provincial, federal and international matters, including permitting and compliance, environmental due diligence, mining and land use.

Alan Harvie has more than 20 years of experience advising on environmental law. Based in Calgary, he handles commercial, operational and regulatory matters, with a strong focus on the oil and gas industry. In one highlight, he acted for Enbridge Income Fund Holdings on the CAD1 billion purchase of oil storage facilities and solar projects.

Significant clients RONA, ConocoPhillips, Hydro-Québec, Holcim.

第四等 |

What the team is known for A significant profile in oil and gas, supported by a team of environmental specialists in Toronto. The firm advises on environmental assessments and regulatory approvals as well as commercial transactions, prosecution defence, climate change and emissions trading.

Notable practitioners  

Shawn Denstedt QC is a regular feature in energy project development in Western Canada. He advises across a range of sectors including mining, chemicals and oil and gas.

Daniel Kirby is singled out for his focus on civil litigation and emergency response assistance. His practice also covers environmental transactions and projects, investigations and corporate governance. "He is extremely intelligent," sources say.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department

- 9 partners

- 7 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A focus on the environmental implications of high-level business transactions, including M&A deals and matters relating to restructuring and insolvency. Notable expertise in the food service, supermarket and dairy industries.

Work highlights Acted for Sofina Foods on the environmental aspects of its acquisition of Janes Family Foods.

Continues to represent EDF EN Canada in respect of the establishment of renewable energy projects across Canada.

Notable practitioners  

Larry Cobb is the head of the department. He is the firm's point person for environmental transactions, and also advises on D&O liability, insolvency and restructuring. Sources say: "He is a pleasure to work with."

Significant clients Parker Hannifin, Saputo, Redpath Sugar, The Hillman Group.

Other Ranked Lawyers 其他上榜律师

Alan Blair left Gowlings in early 2013 to establish Blair Law Group in Vancouver. He is best known for his prosecution defence work, and sources agree he is "very able in a courtroom." Blair is also recognised for his expertise in occupational health and safety matters.

Gary Letcher of Letcher Akelaitis LLP specialises in contaminated land and sustainability matters in British Columbia. He is highly regarded for environmental litigation, and also advises on corporate governance and compliance.

Based in Edmonton, Ronald Kruhlak QC of McLennan Ross LLP has a strong national profile in environmental law. Notably, he is representing the government of Alberta in the Northern Gateway Pipeline project. 

Robert Daigneault of Robert Daigneault, Cabinet D'Avocats has more than 35 years of experience in environmental matters, as both a lawyer and a scientist. He has a leading reputation in Québec, where he regularly advises on matters including regulatory compliance, permitting, contaminated sites, waste management and civil and criminal litigation.

Sole practitioner Dianne Saxe "is an outstanding environmental lawyer and a marvellous contributor to the environmental law Bar across the country." One source enthused: "Her knowledge is stunning." 

Paul Granda joined environmental boutique Sheahan and Partners G.P. in Montréal in early 2013. Formerly of Gowlings, he is well known for his work in relation to contaminated sites, with a focus on the mining and petroleum sectors.

Anne-Marie Sheahan is the founding partner of Sheahan and Partners G.P. Described as "a formidable opponent," she is widely viewed as a top choice for referral work from national law firms. One interviewee said: "As far as I'm concerned she is the best environmental lawyer in Québec."

John Stefaniuk of Thompson Dorfman Sweatman LLP is a strong choice for environmental law matters with a Manitoba component. Based in Winnipeg, his practice covers contaminated sites, commercial real estate and resource development, with a focus on mining and power projects.

Foreign Experts (Based Abroad)

Based in New York, Jeffrey Gracer of Sive Paget & Riesel PC regularly represents Canadian public companies in connection with environmental transactions in the USA.

Eugene Smary of Warner Norcross & Judd LLP in Grand Rapids, Michigan is frequently involved in environmental matters with a Canadian component. He is an associate member of the Canadian Bar Association's environmental, energy and resources law section.

Foreign Experts

Foreign Experts are individuals with expertise in a different jurisdiction to the one they are based in. These individuals are particularly highly regarded for international and cross-border work. Usually, they will be identified in the jurisdiction in which they are based and in their country of expertise.

Senior Statesman

A 'Senior Statesman' is a lawyer who no longer works hands-on with the same intensity but who, by virtue of close links with major clients, remains pivotal to the firm’s success.

Eminent Practitioners

'Eminent Practitioners' are highly influential lawyers in a particular practice area who, due to managerial or client relationship commitments, are less active in day-to-day work but remain key players in the team.

Other Noted Practitioners

Other Noted Practitioners are individuals who have not yet been ranked but are seen to be active and accomplished in this area of law.

Other Noted Firms

Other Noted Firms are firms that have not yet been ranked but are seen to be active and accomplished in this area of law.