Latin America

Brazil

Labour & Employment


Brazil : AN INTRODUCTION

Contributed by Lilla, Huck, Otranto, Camargo Advogados

It is commonly said that labour relations in Brazil are not for amateurs.

In addition to peculiarities related to culture, productivity and professional training, which can also be found in other countries, labour relations in Brazil defy experts since there is not much room for negotiations involving labour rights between employers and employees.

Indeed, the state extensively and exhaustively regulates labour relations. As a result, it is often difficult for firms to comply with labour regulation due to its complexity, variety of sources and high costs.

In addition to individual labour agreements and internal regulations of each company, labour relations are governed by laws and collective bargaining rules negotiated by unions.

The Brazilian Federal Constitution provides a long list of labour rights considered fundamental and mandatory. At a lower hierarchical level, there is the Consolidation of Labour Laws (CLT) and several sparse laws regulating specific topics. There are also precedents of Labour Courts and extensive regulation issued by the Ministry of Labour and Employment, in particular regarding work safety and occupational health.

In addition to these sources, the Superior Labour Court has so far edited around 900 guidance and case guideline documents, ruling on how to interpret labour laws.

This legal framework, which is broadly protective, not only provides basic rights, but can also be conceived as a series of populist measures, which stiffen and bureaucratise labour relations, generating high costs, and conflicts between workers and firms (who are usually surprised by the fact that agreements are often not enforced and can have unpredictable legal consequences).

For instance, although there are different forms for hiring professionals (e.g., independent contractors, outsourcing, independent sales representation, internship contracts etc.), in practice such forms are usually poorly implemented and subsequently questioned by the professionals themselves or by the authorities. Moreover, due to the application of the principle of the primacy of reality, such agreements are constantly disregarded to recognise the existence of an employment contract when the following elements are demonstrated in practice: (i) work on a regular basis, (ii) for payment, (iii) with subordination, and (iv) personally. In such cases the inherent legal obligations of the employment contract remain in place (even if the parties agreed to the contrary), such as: vacation periods; 13 (instead of 12) monthly salaries per year; a monthly deposit to a severance fund called FGTS to be made by the employer into an escrow account with a governmental bank, in the name of the employee; paid weekly rests; limitation of working hours; overtime remuneration; compensation for non-compliance with legal intervals, amongst others.

Moreover, Brazil labour law:

(i) Forbids wage reductions and changes in employment contracts to the detriment of employees, even if the employees agree with such modifications, which can lead to the inefficiency of agreements and personnel policies.

(ii) Establishes detailed limits of working hours, intervals, including compensated vacation periods.

(iii) Establishes legal additional bonuses for various events (overtime periods, hazardous work, night shifts, etc.) and extra payments for the composition of the employee salary.

Due to these rules, sometimes the costs end up exceeding what was initially planned by firms.

The Ministry of Labour and Employment and the Public Labour Ministry intensively monitor and combat informality and discrimination in the context of labour relations, environmental risks, labour accidents, occupational diseases, child and slave labour, working hours and work intervals, among others. As a result, non-compliance with Brazilian labour laws has become increasingly risky for companies.

Thus, in Brazil, broad and technical knowledge of labour standards and preventive planning is essential for having an effective management overview on the limits and consequences of internal labour policies.

Moreover, other instruments are used by the Brazilian authorities to ensure greater effectiveness of labour regulations and judicial decisions. For example:

(i) The BACEN-JUD agreement, that grants judges access to financial investments of entrepreneurs and allows blocking cash for purpose of payment of labour debts.

(ii) The constant disregard of limited liability of shareholders and managers for labour violations and passive solidarity between companies pertaining to the same economic group.

(iii) The National Bank of Labour Debtors, a register of defaulting debts of labour courts, that may prevent companies from contracting with the government.

(iv) The E-social system, which is fed by the employer with information regarding its payroll and labour relations, which can be accessed by various authorities, in order to accelerate the spotting of errors and illegal labour acts, streamlining collections and punishments.

(iv) Increase of collective lawsuits filed by unions or by public prosecutors, which entails not only high-value financial liabilities (compensation for collective damages) but also the imposition of obligations to the companies, prohibiting the usage of equipment and the activity itself, impeding contracts with the government as well as corporate operations, and may even harm the brand and company reputation.

However, with all these regulatory initiatives, it is also worth mentioning the existence of several attempts to improve flexibility of labour rules, aiming to stimulate business activities.

Some examples are: (i) the Constitutional freedom of the employer to dismiss employees, which eliminated job stability; (ii) the creation of Profit Sharing Programs, which allow for an increase in employees’ compensation without the incidence of labour and social security taxes, and are contingent upon the achievement of relevant targets for the employer; (iii) legal measures to provide certain compensation benefits without impacts on other payroll amounts and/or social security debts; (iv) mechanisms such as the Hour Bank System, which allows the offsetting of excessive working hours, drifting away wage increases in the period up to one year; and (v) the alternative of the new employment contract to work part time (up to 25 hours per week, instead of the 44 weekly hours usually practised), among others.

Other examples of the loosening of labour rules are: (i) the reduction of the payroll because of the substitution, for some sectors, of the employer social security contribution for another, based on gross revenue; and (ii) the renewal of discussions in the legislative and judicial spheres regarding the legality and consequences of outsourcing, especially those activities related to the company’s main business, considering that precedents in the Brazilian Labour Courts have consolidated, in the past few years, the standard that is assumed for the occurrence of fraud in outsourcing of a company's core business.

However, to take advantage of the mechanisms and incentives existing under the Brazilian legal framework, to identify legal changes and developments, to opt for safer and more effective structures of staff hiring so as to achieve economic efficiency, and also to mitigate labour risks and adapt to changing scenarios, it is essential to have deep technical knowledge of the Brazilian legal system and strategic and preventative planning.

Labour & Employment - Brazil

 - 

第一等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 2 partners
- 31 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A seasoned and highly regarded group whose expertise encompasses the full remit of labour and employment issues, notably trade union actions, profit-sharing planning and judicial lawsuits.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"They have a robust, skilful and experienced team that is able to provide the right level of support for all our needs."

Notable practitioners  

Head of department Sólon de Almeida Cunha is hailed by peers as an "excellent practioner," while clients prize his strong academic background and networking skills.

Partner Rodrigo Takano is much lauded by sources: "He is exceedingly knowledgeable and very commercially minded."

Associate Caroline Marchi is also commended by clients for her "diligent and clear advice."

Significant clients Zara, Via Varejo, Azul, Adidas, Diageo.

第一等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 6 partners
- 17 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Highly specialised boutique based in São Paulo. Frequently recommended by clients as the go-to firm for their most challenging cases. Advises on the full range of labour and employment matters, notably severance payments, class actions, outsourcing and disputes involving employment terms.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"They are excellent. We hire them for our most complex mandates and are very satisfied with the results they have achieved for us." 

"We have always been very well assisted by the team." 

"They provide a fast and effective turnaround." 

What's new? The firm recently promoted one of its associates to partner.

Notable practitioners  

Estêvão Mallet wins all-round praise from market commentators: "He is a brilliant and very talented lawyer who has a sophisticated approach to cases and delivers high-quality client service."

Significant clients Itaú Unibanco, Citibank, Multigrain, Xerox, Nestlé.

第一等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 6 partners
- 112 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Sizeable and fully dedicated team providing regular assistance to clients in all aspects of labour and employment legislation. Caseload spans advice on stock options, profit sharing and executive compensation issues. In addition, sources are particularly enthusiastic about the group's litigation expertise and its ability to take on large-scale lawsuits as well as strategic matters.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"The team is excellent and fully dedicated to meeting clients' needs."

"For us, they stand out for their dexterity in handling both smaller, high-volume cases as well as more complex issues."

"Their IT features are quite impressive, allowing us to track our cases online, which is a huge plus."

What's new? Partner headcount has recently been boosted by the promotion of one of the team's senior associates.

Notable practitioners  

Clients have been thoroughly impressed by Mihoko Sirley Kimura: "She's very knowledgeable and pragmatic. We have sought her advice for some rather complex issues and despite being quite senior in her career she has a very down-to-earth attitude and is always available."

Alexandre de Almeida Cardoso specialises in handling clients' large volume lawsuits.

Market observers single out Marcelo Pereira Gômara for his "intelligent approach" and "impeccable technique."

Porto Alegre-based Roberto Pierri Bersch is "prompt, helpful and exceedingly knowledgeable," says a client.

Significant clients Casino, Hyundai, BMW, Oracle, Colgate-Palmolive.

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 20 partners
- 10 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for A long-established boutique fully focused on labour and employment matters. The team provides advice on contracts, trade union negotiations and investigative procedures, earning particular acclaim for its litigation proficiency.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"I highly recommend this team! They are very specialised in employment matters and much respected by their counterparts. They are also committed and conscientious."

Notable practitioners  

Maurício Granadeiro Guimarães wins much praise from peers who describe him as "a formidable opponent" when representing clients in disputes. 

Gustavo Granadeiro Guimarães is lauded by sources for his technical expertise and pragmatic approach.

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 2 partners
- 31 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Long-established boutique providing assistance to clients on an extensive range of labour and social security matters. The group is well-regarded for its litigation expertise, though its workload also encompasses pension plans, personnel outsourcing and collective bargaining.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients) 

"They are equally adept at handling large volumes of lawsuits as well as complex disputes."

Notable practitioners  

Founding partner Luiz Carlos Robortella is unanimously acclaimed by market observers: "His presence commands great respect. Everyone sits ups and listens when he speaks in court."

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 5 partners
- 27 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Extensive and well-established labour group at one of the country's leading full service firms. Highly regarded by clients for its strategic advice on lawsuits, civil class actions and trade union negotiations. Practice covers Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Brasília and Porto Alegre and attracts both domestic and international clients.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"The partners are very accessible and really take the time to understand the specific requirements of our business, offering intelligent solutions that match our goals."

"I recommend them since they are very business-oriented and always provide practical legal advice."

What's new? The São Paulo team has been recently boosted by the arrival of a new partner.

Work highlights Representing motorway concession holders Ecovias in a lawsuit filed by the Minitry of Labour for an alleged illicit outsourcing of personnel. The team successfully managed to have the fines annulled and the case was eventually dismissed.

Notable practitioners  

Luiz Guilherme Moraes Rego Migliora is singled out by clients for his "broad experience and accomplished interpersonal skills demonstrated during court hearings."

José Carlos Wahle earns considerable praise from clients for his "expertise, clear advice and good judgement."

Maria Luisa Soter is a former labour court judge. She advises the firm's domestic and international clientele on visas and immigration issues.

Clients champion Luiz Antonio dos Santos Jr: "He offers the complete package, showing versatility and wide-ranging knowledge of labour issues."

Significant clients Masterfoods, Flextronics, Philip Morris, Marriot, Statoil.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 3 partners
- 13 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Growing labour practice that complements the firm's full-service capabilities. Assists clients in planning compensation packages, terminations and outsourcing agreements in addition to a broad range of claims and disputes.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"Their advice is highly business oriented, expeditious and strictly focused on the client's needs."

Work highlights Representing Energia Sustentável do Brasil (an arm of the GDF Suez Group) in a number of civil actions filed by the Rondônia State Labour Prosecutor's Office in connection with labour liabilities incurred by subcontractors hired to build the Jirau hydroelectric plant.

Notable practitioners  

Partner Maurício Pessoa recently reinforced the the team. He is hailed by clients for his commitment and creativity in finding appropriate solutions.

Clients also single out head of department Luiz Felipe Tenório da Veiga: "His advice is clear, direct and readily understood by the lay person."

Significant clients TV Globo, Inteva, Nokia, Walmart, Shell.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 12 partners
- 24 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Full-service firm fielding a large team of labour experts. Particularly well regarded for its work in disputes, advising clients on trade union negotiations, class actions and employment termination packages.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"Their client service is great and the team represents very good value for money. Partners are available at all times and respond very quickly to our queries, keeping deadlines no matter how complex the issue."

What's new? One of the team's senior associates has been recently promoted partner.

Work highlights Representing Swissport in an action involving quotas for disabled persons filed by the Brazilian Labour Ministry. The team has successufully obtained an interloctory injuction, pending the final decision of the trial court.

Notable practitioners  

Head of department Cássia Fernanda Pizzotti "stands out for her ability to co-ordinate the workload and take charge of negotiations," says a client.

Significant clients Akzo Nobel, Mercedes-Benz, Motorola, Mattel, Alcoa.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 2 partners
- 34 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for One-stop shop boutique for labour matters specialising on contentious matters. Represents clients in both judicial and administrative disputes as well as furnishing advice on collective bargaining, contingency liabilities and private pensions schemes.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"They have a spectacular team and have helped us achieve a 65% reduction in the number of labour claims filed against our company."

Notable practitioners The key contact for clients is Marcelo Costa Mascaro Nascimento.

Significant clients Petrobras.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 1 partner
- 9 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Emerging labour practice at top São Paulo outfit. Advises clients on the full range of labour and employment matters including severance terms, trade union negotiations and employee benefits.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"They are very agile and excel in their technical expertise." 

Notable practitioners  

Head of department Vilma Toshie Kutomi is much lauded by clients: "She is highly experienced, available and inspires a lot of confidence in her work."

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 3 partners
- 12 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Sought out for its full-service profile and specialised labour and employment team. Advises a prominent clientele on consultancy and litigation matters, namely stock option plans, executive claims, bonuses and staff harassment issues.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"The team is very responsive and their advice is thorough and practical."

Notable practitioners  

Head of department Luís Antônio Ferraz Mendes is frequently endorsed by market observers, who describe him as a "brilliant and highly capable lawyer," also commending his skills in handling delicate matters.

Significant clients LVMH, Intel Semicondutores, Sanofi-Aventis, Novartis, Dow.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 1 partner
- 12 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for This compact but solid labour practice boosts the firm's wide-ranging offering. Provides assistance to clients with collective bargaining agreements, executive compensation plans and disputes, and also advises on suspected instances of fraud.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"They provide fast and objective advice, always aiming to reach the best result for our company while minimising potential risks."

Notable practitioners  

Head of department Dario Abrahão Rabay elicits extensive praise from clients: "He is a remarkable lawyer - responsive, commercially minded and shows excellent judgement. He is a pleasure to work with."

Sources also hail Aldo Martinez Neto: "He has impressed us with his client-friendly manner and ability to get to the heart of an issue quickly."

Significant clients Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Rossi Construtora, The Marketing Store Worldwide, Even Construtora e Incorporadora, Alcatel-Lucent.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 3 partners
- 22 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Well-rounded team that combines extensive knowledge of local law with an impressive international reach. Advises clients on labour aspects of cross-border transactions, as well as employee compensation schemes and high-priority labour disputes.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"We appreciate the team's technical expertise and customer care."

What's new? A senior associate in the São Paulo labour team has been recently promoted to partner.

Work highlights Advising the Brazilian subsidiary of Bloomin' Brands on labour-related issues following its acquisition of a 40% equity participation in PGS Consultoria e Serviços.

Notable practitioners  

Head of department Ana Paula Vizintini focuses her practice on litigation and collective bargaining matters.

Rio-based associate Tricia Maria Sá P de Oliveira is lauded by clients for her articulate manner.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 4 partners
- 21 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Expanding labour practice at this Belo Horizonte-based full service firm. Managing clients' claims and disputes in addition to providing legal opinions on a broad spectrum of employment issues.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"They are committed and show considerable leadership in the conduct of our cases."

What's new? Partner Mariá Guitti has joined team from Lefosse.

Notable practitioners  

Gustavo Magalhães Assis "is highly capable and provides fast responses to our queries," according to sources.

Clients speak enthusiastically about Luanna Vieira de Lima Costa's technical expertise and "effortless ability to adapt to new situations."

Partner Mariá Guitti has recently joined the team. Guitti is highly esteemed by clients who say she is "extremely diligent, assertive and creative in seeking appropriate solutions for highly complex labour issues."

Significant clients Claro, CBMM, Votorantim, Holcim, White Martins.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 8 partners
- 10 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Recently established boutique founded by a group of experienced labour partners. Advises clients on all manner of disputes including civil class actions and trade union negotiations, in addition to providing regular consultancy on social security matters.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"This firm is outstanding in its area of practice and services are rendered with excellence and professionalism."

Notable practitioners  

Geraldo Baraldi Jr is singled out by peers for his litigation expertise, adding that "he is a brilliant lawyer."

Labour and employment consultant Antonio Carlos Vianna de Barros is much admired by peers, who highlight his "broad experience and solid market credibility."

Partner Mauricio Greca Consentino specialises in trade union matters.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 32 lawyers

What the team is known for Long-standing Rio-based boutique with an additional office in São Paulo. Regularly represents clients in individual as well as collective disputes, also conducting preventive audits and advising on employment contracts.

Notable practitioners Cristóvão Soares Guimarães is the main point of contact for clients.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 4 partners

What the team is known for Providing consultancy on a broad range of issues including employment contracts, dismissal procedures and union negotiations. The team is also frequently engaged to represent clients in high-level executive disputes.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"We were faced with a series of unfavourable decisions but after hiring Lilla Huck's labour team on a recommendation, they managed to argue our case in court successfully and reverse the situation."

What's new? A new partner specialising in labour litigation has recently reinforced the team.

Notable practitioners  

Head of department Maria Fernanda de Medeiros Redi is singled by clients for her dedication and diligence in providing regular and thorough updates.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 19 partners
- 9 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Providing preventive advice on a broad range of employment and social security issues and managing disputes at all court levels.

Notable practitioners  

Founding partner Cássio Mesquita Barros is a much-respected labour lawyer and scholar. He wins praise from market observers for his experience and "sound rapport with the authorities."

Significant clients General Motors.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 4 partners
- 12 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Specialised labour firm that provides clients with a broad range of consultancy and contentious services, as well as assistance with trade union negotiations. Offers support across the country from its Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Curitiba and Salvador offices. 

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"They possess a highly competent team and the service provided represents excellent value for money."

Work highlights Defending electricity provider CELPE in a series of ongoing labour disputes.

Notable practitioners  

Founding partner Arnaldo Pipek is a recognised labour specialist who leads the litigation team.

第四等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 13 partners
- 198 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Advising clients on the full range of labour and social security matters, including severance payments, outsourcing and class actions. Also particularly well-regarded for its expert handling of high volume lawsuits across the country.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"We appreciate the accessibility of the partners, the quality of the work produced and timeliness of responses."

What's new? The practice has been boosted by the arrival of a new partner, while two of its associates have also been recently promoted to partner positions.

Work highlights Representing infrastructure group Camargo Correa in a dispute over the legality of strikes called by a group of workers engaged in the construction of a hydroelectric plant in the north of Brazil.

Notable practitioners  

São Paulo-based Otavio Pinto e Silva heads the department and earns admiration from many of his peers: "He's a brilliant lawyer, very accomplished and knows how to establish a good rapport with the authorities."

Rio-based partner Carlos Eduardo Cardoso specialises in social security matters.

Significant clients Grupo Edson Queiroz, Vale, HRT, VIVO, TIM CELULAR.

第五等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 1 partner
- 38 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Rio-based firm offering comprehensive advice on business law. Acts for clients in employment claims disputes and advises on collective agreements and trade union rights.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"The team stands out for its dedication and ability to provide clear advice and organised service."

Work highlights Acting for construction and real estate company Gafisa in an ongoing employee dispute over its choice of health insurance provider.

Notable practitioners  

João Pedro Eyler Povoa heads the department and is noted by peers for technical proficiency.

Significant clients TIM, Bureau Veritas, Nokia, Globo, Groupon.

第五等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 1 partner
- 4 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for Assisting clients with a broad range of labour queries as well as advising on employee grievances and disputes.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"The team is notable for their technical expertise and excellent client service."

Notable practitioners  

Alexandre Pessoa is commended by clients for his "fast service and extensive knowledge of labour and employment legislation."

Significant clients Freudenberg, Ogilvy, Koch, Agenciaclick, Yoki.

第五等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 2 partners
- 30 other qualified lawyers

What the team is known for The group is well regarded for its assistance in disputes, also earning praise for its expertise advising on union negotiations and settlements. Noted for its experience with large-scale claims.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"A great labour team adept at handling everyday, but also more complex, labour disputes."

Notable practitioners  

Arthur Cahen is highly valued by clients: "His advice is fast and in-depth, and he understands our company's goals."

Significant clients Alusa Engenharia, Schahin Engenharia, Tenaris Confab Group, Areva Transmissão & Distribuição de Energia, Delta Construções.

第五等 |

Basic facts about the department
- 1 partner
- 1 other qualified lawyer

What the team is known for Counselling clients on employment disputes, executive remuneration and severance packages as well as benefits and pensions.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)

"They are agile and committed and we have achieved considerable success in dealing with high executive claims thanks to their advice."

Work highlights Assisting spirits manufacturer Beam and JBB Bebidas with labour and social security issues following the latter's incorporation.

Notable practitioners  

Clients rave about Silvia Fidalgo Lira's performance: "She is an excellent labour lawyer, extremely shrewd in court and has successfully concluded some exceptional agreements for our company."  

Significant clients All Ore Mineração, Belltech, Orion Engineered Carbons, LK Technology, Duxxi Imobiliária.

Other Ranked Lawyers 其他上榜律师

Brasília-based José Alberto Couto Maciel of Advocacia Maciel is lauded by market observers for his experience and courtroom performance.

Maria Helena Villela Autuori of Autuori Burmann Chen Sociedade de Advogados is recommended by sources for her availability and considerable command of labour and employment matters.

Head of department at CFA Advogados, Boriska Ferreira Rocha has thoroughly impressed clients: "She is business-oriented and proactive, and has a very practical approach to complex issues."

Leila Alves of De Luca, Derenusson, Schuttoff e Azevedo Advogados "quickly understands what needs to be done and is able to communicate any issues in a very clear manner," says a client.

Clients extol André de Melo Ribeiro of Dias Carneiro, Arystóbulo, Flores, Sanches e Thomaz Bastos Advogados: "His practical vision is exceptional. He foresees any practical problems and is very hands-on. He is also able to present different alternatives and is very objective in his advice."

Fábio Chong de Lima of L.O. Baptista, Schmidt, Valois, Miranda, Ferreira & Agel receives much praise from clients: "He is very thorough, anticipates our needs and is able to explain Brazilian law in a clear and straightforward way."

Clients have been impressed by Andrea Giamondo Massei Rossi of Lobo & de Rizzo Advogados: "We really value her objective attitude and her persuasive manner in court. In addition, she understands common law and knows how to bridge the gap between different cultural contexts."

Nelson Mannrich of Mannrich, Senra e Vasconcelos Advogados is hailed by peers as a "labour and employment heavyweight" for his knowledge and technical expertise.

Rio-based Henrique Maués of Maués Advogados Associados is acknowledged by market commentators who highlight his years of experience and impressive in-court skills.

Agenor Barreto Parente of Rio Branco Paranhos is hailed by peers for his long-standing expertise advising claimants involved in judicial disputes.

Brasília-based Victor Russomano Junior of Russomano Advocacia wins frequent endorsement from peers, who describe him as "a highly capable lawyer with effective networking skills".

Foreign Experts

Foreign Experts are individuals with expertise in a different jurisdiction to the one they are based in. These individuals are particularly highly regarded for international and cross-border work. Usually, they will be identified in the jurisdiction in which they are based and in their country of expertise.

Senior Statesman

A 'Senior Statesman' is a lawyer who no longer works hands-on with the same intensity but who, by virtue of close links with major clients, remains pivotal to the firm’s success.

Eminent Practitioners

'Eminent Practitioners' are highly influential lawyers in a particular practice area who, due to managerial or client relationship commitments, are less active in day-to-day work but remain key players in the team.

Other Noted Practitioners

Other Noted Practitioners are individuals who have not yet been ranked but are seen to be active and accomplished in this area of law.

Other Noted Firms

Other Noted Firms are firms that have not yet been ranked but are seen to be active and accomplished in this area of law.