USA

Nationwide

International Arbitration


Nationwide : AN INTRODUCTION

Contributed by Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer US LLP

Arbitration continues to be a dynamic and popular form of international dispute resolution in the United States. Among the key developments and trends of the past year: (1) the United States Supreme Court’s decision in BG Group v Argentina affirmed the US judiciary’s strong support for arbitration and deference to arbitral decisions; (2) international investors continued to look to arbitration to resolve treaty disputes with host states; and (3) a rash of successful arbitrator challenges in investor-state cases suggests that parties and their counsel will need to approach arbitrator appointments in all cases with particular care – and arbitrators will need to carefully consider their ongoing disclosure obligations.

A Landmark Pro-Arbitration Decision from the United States Supreme Court

First, the United States Supreme Court’s March 2014 decision in BG Group v Argentina likely represents the single most important recent US law development in the international arbitration field.

In BG, the Supreme Court reversed a decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit vacating a $185 million UNCITRAL award against Argentina, on the basis that BG had not first litigated in Argentina for 18 months – as required by the governing treaty. In a major win for the international arbitration system in the US, the Supreme Court held that it was for the arbitrators – and not for a court – to decide whether procedural conditions specified in an arbitration agreement, specifically the United Kingdom-Argentina Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT), had been met. As a consequence, it would give deference to the arbitrators’ analysis of whether such conditions had been fulfilled. Although BG was the Supreme Court’s first ever case concerning a BIT dispute, the Court treated the BIT’s arbitration provision as fundamentally no different from a commercial arbitration agreement premised on a private contract.

BG followed two other 2013 Supreme Court decisions that took a similarly strong pro-arbitration stance. In Oxford Health Plans LLC v Sutter, the Court ruled that an arbitrator’s interpretation of whether the parties’ contract authorized class arbitration was not subject to judicial review. Then, in American Express Co. v Italian Colors Restaurant, the Court held that class action waivers in an arbitral agreement will be strictly enforced, even if some claims would otherwise be too expensive to bring. Taken together, these decisions confirm that US courts will enforce arbitration agreements as written and defer to arbitrators' decisions. They largely foreclose the possibility of plaintiffs bringing mass “class-action” style arbitration claims against parties that had contracted to resolve disputes exclusively on a case-by-case basis.

Investor-State Arbitration Remains an Active and Diversifying Field

Second, and notwithstanding criticism of the investor-state dispute system from states such as Venezuela, investors continue to seek international arbitration of treaty disputes with host states. Usually brought pursuant to BITs that provide for the arbitration of disputes regarding the treatment of one state’s investors by another state, investor-state arbitrations may also be brought pursuant to multilateral instruments, such as NAFTA, CAFTA, or the Energy Charter Treaty, as well as national laws or contracts between state entities and foreign investors. Most such arbitrations are brought within the framework of the ICSID Convention, a multilateral treaty establishing the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), under the auspices of the World Bank, or else under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules, first promulgated by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), and most recently revised in 2010.

According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), investors brought 57 new publicly known treaty arbitrations against state respondents through the end of 2013. This is the second highest number of new investment arbitration claims ever filed in a given year, second only to the previous year’s record-setting 62 new treaty claims. At least nine more investor-state claims were brought before ICSID alone in the first quarter of 2014.

Investor-state arbitration continues to attract an increasingly diverse range of parties and disputes. It is notable that nearly half of the reported treaty claims brought in 2013 were against developed states, with the Czech Republic being the most frequently named new respondent in 2013, while Venezuela enjoyed this distinction in 2012. Investment tribunals were appointed to resolve claims arising from investments in the financial services, media, telecommunications, real estate, natural resources and energy sectors, among others, while many disputes involved issues of host-state environmental regulations.

Recent decisions give good reason for confidence in the future of investor-state arbitration, and to expect a widening range of parties and disputes to fall within its scope. In an important decision, the tribunal hearing ConocoPhillips’ claim against Venezuela for the expropriation of its petroleum investments in the country rejected Venezuelan arguments that ConocoPhillips, a US-based company, had engaged in “treaty abuse” of the underlying Netherlands-Venezuela BIT by structuring its investments through its Netherlands entities. To the contrary, the tribunal ruled that a BIT claim could be brought so long as the investment structure predated the parties’ dispute and was made in good faith. The Tribunal went on to find Venezuela liable for the unlawful expropriation of the investments of the Dutch subsidiaries of ConocoPhillips in the country, although the final amount to be awarded has yet to be decided. The decision confirms that international businesses will do well to seek advice on the full range of available treaty protections at the stage of planning their investments.

Tribunals also continue to recognize a broad range of “investments” as qualifying for treaty protection. In Ambiente Ufficio v Argentina, an ICSID tribunal determined that a claimant’s investment in a respondent state’s sovereign bonds was entitled to protection as an “investment” within the meaning of the ICSID Convention, a result in keeping with the 2011 decision in Abaclat v Argentina. Investor-state tribunals are also currently considering multiple claims arising out of the Greek sovereign debt crisis. Arbitration of investor-state disputes in the financial sphere is likely to become increasingly common.

The issue of corruption has also received significant attention in international arbitration. In Metal-Tech Ltd. v Uzbekistan an ICSID tribunal refused jurisdiction over claims based on an investment obtained through bribery of host state officials. Corruption has been alleged in other disputes and is likely to be a recurring theme in investor-state disputes, especially where a host state has experienced a change in government.

Arbitrator Challenges 

Third, arbitrator challenges are emerging as an increasingly popular tactic, most visibly in investor-state cases. Although arbitrator challenges are rarely successful, they have met with remarkable success over the past year, with a number of arbitrators in investor-state disputes being ordered to step aside, or resigning in the face of claims of bias and issue conflicts. In one recent ICSID case, Blue Bank International & Trust (Barbados) Ltd. v Venezuela, reciprocal challenges based on the challenged arbitrators’ professional relationships ended with the removal of the claimant’s appointed arbitrator by ICSID and the resignation of the respondent’s arbitrator.

Arbitrators in other recent investor-state disputes have been disqualified based on alleged “prejudgment” of issues in the case before them, or for criticizing the conduct of counsel challenging their appointment. These developments may encourage similar tactics in commercial cases, even though one of the attractions of arbitration is, of course, the parties’ role in selecting the individuals who will decide their dispute. Clients will need to approach arbitrator appointments with care, and be guided by experienced counsel, if their appointments are to be safe from challenge.

International Arbitration - Nationwide

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第一等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key office is New York.

What the team is known for High-profile team with an extremely deep bench, showcasing expertise in investor treaty disputes and international commercial arbitrations, as well as a renowned resource for arbitrator appointments. Much admired for its leading arbitration experience and impressive global capabilities.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"Debevoise is very strong in international arbitration. The team is efficient and includes people from the London and New York offices, ensuring 24-hour work. I value their hard work, strategic advice and preparation."

"Very high quality across the board. They have a very balanced practice and are strong in epicenters of arbitration work."

Work highlights Represented Tethyan Copper Company in a bilateral investment treaty (BIT) ICSID arbitration against The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, and an ICC arbitration against the government of Balochistan alleging breaches of a joint venture agreement.

Continued to act on the annulment phase of the ongoing BIT arbitration between Occidental and the Republic of Ecuador, in which the team had previously achieved a groundbreaking award of $2.3 billion for Occidental.

Notable practitioners  

Sources admire Catherine Amirfar's approach to disputes: "She zealously represents her clients while acting in a reasonable and civil fashion." Clients are also quick to praise her intellect, her flexibility in considering their needs and her ability to "propose solutions that aren't immediately apparent."

Donald Francis Donovan is singled out by interviewees as "someone to take a knotty problem to." He is a renowned arbitrator and advocate, and recently acted for Tethyan Copper in disputes relating alleged breaches of a joint venture agreement with the government of Balochistan. One source enthusiastically affirmed that "he is a fantastic lawyer - well prepared and open-minded."

Sources are quick to praise David Rivkin's "superb advice and advocacy skills." He is described as a "go-to person" for international arbitration matters, with an impressed observer noting that "he is very well positioned to assist clients in complex arbitration cases, whatever the specific elements of the case are." He has a long-established reputation as a trusted arbitrator and has also recently secured notable victories in arbitrations as counsel on behalf of clients such as Occidental.

The "excellent" Dietmar Prager is admired by sources for his ability to "combine substantive knowledge with academic understanding," and highlighted by clients for his "great depth of analysis." He has been involved in advising Tethyan Copper in various arbitrations.

Mark Friedman is commended as an individual who "certainly knows the business and can handle anything." He is one of the team advising Tethyan Copper, and has significant experience representing clients in investment treaty and commercial arbitrations.

Significant clients Perenco, GE, Pueblo Viejo Dominicana, Interros International Investments, GlaxoSmithKline.

第一等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Integrated global practice with an impressive reach worldwide. Has great strength in representing sovereigns in investor-state disputes, and remarkable skill in handling significant commercial international arbitration. Also a renowned Latin America arbitration practice.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"The team is just incredible - they all have inquiring minds and are great communicators. They understand the process very well and there was a feeling of confidence that we weren't constantly re-explaining facts."

"The firm is very strong in many areas that are critical for us. Their bench strength is good and they have a sophisticated understanding of commercial matters. They are also experienced in international arbitration proceedings and have strong strategic planning skills."

Work highlights Acted for the Republic of Guatemala in a $285 million ICSID arbitration brought by TECO Guatemala in connection with the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA).

Represented GDF SUEZ in two ICSID arbitrations against Argentina, valued at $1.3 billion, which involved disputes connected to water concessions.

Notable practitioners  

Alexander Yanos maintains a strong commercial and investment treaty practice. He recently appeared for BG Group in a US Supreme Court merits hearing in connection with an award previously made to BG. The matter is valued in excess of $250 million.

Brian King is singled out as a "formidable opponent," and praised for his preparation and advocacy skills. His approach to handling arbitrations is particularly admired, with one source pointing out that "he will have seen every angle of the problem and will do a first-rate job."

Nigel Blackaby receives extensive praise as a "brilliant lawyer" who is "very strong and respected for his Latin America work." He leads the team at Freshfields and his recent representations include appearing on behalf of Bureau Veritas in an ICSID arbitration against the Republic of Paraguay. One admirer points out that "he was talking about BIT cases years and years before anyone else. His practice is amazing."

Noiana Paula Marigo is building a reputation for being "smart, capable and easy to work with." She has recently been involved in advising GDF SUEZ and Pan American Energy in international arbitrations.

Significant clients Repsol, ConocoPhillips, Saint-Gobain Performance Plastics Europe, National Grid, Tiffany & Co.

第一等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Highly acclaimed commercial and investor treaty practice with a top-tier caseload. Maintains a wide-ranging global reach and a highly commended ability to gain ground in disputes involving multiple locations. Houses an impressive bench of experienced arbitrators and advocates.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They've made it their business to become experts in our field, so we've found working with the firm to be a very collaborative process."

"They are to the point, they know exactly what the case is about and they understand their client very well. Their written work and statements are very good, and they nail the issue down exactly, so that they don't waste resources doing unnecessary work when they prepare a case."

Work highlights Acted for Republic of Uzbekistan in two separate investment treaty arbitrations: one relating to the Uzbekistan-Israel BIT in which more than $200 million is in dispute, and one concerning the Uzbekistan-UK BIT, with a disputed sum of more than $400 million.

Represented the Republic of Peru in an ICSID arbitration arising in connection with the Argentina-Peru BIT; also acts for Peru in other ICSID and UNCITRAL arbitrations.

Notable practitioners  

Sources single out Abby Cohen Smutny's ability to "get inside a client's head - she really understands all aspects of a case, not just from the legal perspective but from a layman's point of view." She is also praised for her businesslike approach and advocacy skills, and regularly handles a range of investor-state and commercial disputes.

Clients are particularly pleased with Ank Santens's commitment to their matters, with one saying: "She's very dedicated to the relationship, which has impressed me." Santens is highlighted as being "excellent at defusing difficult situations and distilling what needs to be decided."

Global head of arbitration Paul Friedland is a widely recognized leader in this field. Clients highlight his longstanding reputation, noting that "his experience has paid off - he anticipated everything and was right." He is an experienced counsel in international arbitration matters, having recently represented the Republic of Bulgaria in an ICSID arbitration. He is also acclaimed for his notable practice sitting as arbitrator in a range of disputes.

Observers of Carolyn Lamm's work as counsel in international arbitration matters describe her as a "first-class advocate." She is also admired for her work both as an expert and as an arbitrator in international arbitrations. As one source enthusiastically points out, "she is extremely capable and we think highly of her."

Darryl Lew is based in Washington, DC and was recently involved in representing Gold Reserve in an ICSID arbitration against Venezuela, in which more than $2 billion was in dispute. His advocacy skills, experience and knowledge are particularly lauded by clients.

Significant clients SGS, Republic of the Philippines, Oil Insurance, TECO, Georgia.

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key office is Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Acclaimed for its impressive capabilities in both commercial disputes and investment treaty arbitrations. Fields a highly regarded multilingual team able to conduct advocacy in a range of languages, including English, Spanish and French. Also draws on the impressive capabilities of a strong group of arbitrators.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They have complete command of international commercial arbitration and investor-state arbitration, and consistently give comprehensive, in-depth, sound advice."

"They're high quality, careful, well prepared and thorough. The associates working on our arbitration have been motivated and intelligent, and I would readily use these lawyers for other matters."

What's new? Oscar Garibaldi retired in September 2013 to pursue engagements as a full-time independent arbitrator.

Work highlights Represented ExxonMobil in a multibillion-dollar ICSID arbitration arising in connection with alleged violations of the Netherlands-Venezuela BIT by Venezuela.

Acted for Tidewater in an ICSID arbitration concerning the expropriation of investments in Venezuela.

Notable practitioners  

Eugene Gulland particularly impresses interviewees with his ability to present an argument: "His oral and written advocacy is clear, concise, convincing and hard-hitting." He recently acted for Accession Mezzanine Capital in an ICSID arbitration, and is considered to be an excellent strategist who "sees angles and arguments before others do."

Marney Cheek continues to impress sources with her expanding expertise in the arbitration arena, with one commenting: "She will be a real leader one day." Cheek acted for Metal-Tech in connection with an ICSID BIT dispute against Uzbekistan.

Miguel López Forastier is developing a sterling reputation among clients, who are quick to point out that "his analysis is thorough, his advocacy is insightful and persuasive, and his judgment is consistently reliable."

Significant clients BP America, Hess Equatorial Guinea, Tullow Equatorial Guinea, Clorox, Eli Lilly.

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Admired for its longstanding and impressively broad-based commercial and investor-state arbitration practice. Has substantial experience in advising on disputes across a broad range of sectors, including power and energy, banking and pharmaceuticals.

Work highlights Represented Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı in an ICSID arbitration against the Republic of Kazakhstan related to substantial investments made by the client in Kazakhstan's oil and gas industry.

Acted on behalf of V.S.N. Produktie in an ICDR arbitration brought against a US web hosting company, in which the client sought $2.8 million in damages.

Notable practitioners  

John Fellas is quickly picked out by sources as an "excellent practitioner" who has impressed in arbitration dealings. He both sits as an arbitrator and appears as counsel, and is praised for his knowledge and his "very good arbitration poise," with one client noting: "He's unflappable and very measured. John isn't fazed by anything."

John Townsend is identified as an arbitrator who "knows how to work with parties and be rational and reasonable." Sources also describe him as a "fantastic advocate," particularly praising his skill in commercial arbitrations.

Market commentator describe Steven Hammond as a "fabulous lawyer." He has extensive experience in acting as an arbitrator and as counsel in a range of disputes, and recently advised Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı in an ICSID arbitration.

Significant clients Government of Canada, Forest Laboratories, Suzlon Energy.

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include Texas and New York.

What the team is known for Widely regarded as a leading resource in arbitrations involving energy companies and sovereigns. Maintains a very high profile in the oil and gas space and has impressive global capabilities, with expertise across investment treaty and commercial disputes.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"An oil and gas arbitration powerhouse." 

"What makes them great lawyers is that they understand the arbitrators, they understand the form, and they understand the limits of what can and can't be advanced in arbitration."

Work highlights The team continues to act on behalf of Chevron in its high-profile UNCITRAL arbitration against Ecuador regarding the US-Ecuador BIT.

Notable practitioners  

"Hugely respected arbitrator" Doak Bishop receives tremendous respect for his longstanding international practice and is highly experienced in both serving as counsel and arbitrating disputes. Clients admire his "invaluable and unique" expertise, outlining how helpful they find "his calm approach, his long-term perspective in resolving disputes, and his deep understanding of arbitrators and arbitration as a whole."

Edward Kehoe is highly recommended for his strength in the international arbitration arena. He co-heads the global international arbitration group and continues to represent Chevron in its UNCITRAL arbitration against Ecuador.

Observers who have witnessed Guillermo Aguilar-Alvarez in action in arbitrations note that he is a "superb arbitrator," who is "excellent - hard-working, quick and very bright." He is singled out as a key lawyer for energy arbitration.

Henry Burnett is much admired for his skillful handling of professional and client relationships, and specializes in advising Latin America clients in international arbitrations. One happy source noted that "he is a really tough negotiator and he helped us get a really great deal."

John Bowman is affirmed to be "very good for his excellent oil and gas and energy focus." He is based in Houston and is noted for his involvement in a broad range of disputes arising from investment and commercial matters.  

Sources say Craig Miles is "a fantastic international arbitrator who is very clear and has a detailed and business-oriented approach." He focuses on representing foreign investors in disputes with sovereign entities.

Significant clients Exterran, Renco, ConocoPhillips, Murphy, ExxonMobil.

第二等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key office is New York.

What the team is known for Specialist sector expertise enables it to assist clients in disputes across a range of areas, including banking, petrochemical and energy. Experienced in advising clients in arbitrations under ICDR, LCIA, ICSID and ICC rules, among others.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They have impressive geographical coverage and they are using their accumulated experience very well."

"They have the requisite expertise to offer clients an excellent service. They will work on the really high-end matters and have a very deep client base."

Work highlights Successfully defended BVI-based telecoms investment company Altimo Holdings in an UNCITRAL arbitration valued in excess of $6 billion.

Continued to advise Castle Harlan on seeking to compel LCIA arbitration in defense of alleged claims of fraud brought against the company by Norcast in a $225 million dispute.

Notable practitioners  

Barry Garfinkel is praised as "a very sharp and strong arbitrator," and recognized as a highly experienced expert in this space. One source noted: "When I see that he is sitting as an arbitrator, I think 'thank God'. He has truly seen it all."

John Gardiner is highlighted for his excellence in cross-examinations and for his abilities as a "very good strategist and tactician." One impressed source affirms his reputation as "a really strong practitioner with an expert grasp of the area." Gardiner's practice spans both arbitration and litigation.

Julie Bédard recently advised Barbados-incorporated Gambrinus in an ICSID arbitration against the Venezuelan government. Sources affirm that she is a "standout individual" and "a definite rising presence in the US market."

Timothy Nelson recently played a role in representing Devas Multimedia in an ICC arbitration against Antrix, and is commended by sources for his deep-rooted arbitration expertise and strong advocacy style.

Significant clients Traffic Sports International, Starr Investments Cayman II, Inversiones Argentinas, BNP Paribas, UniCredit. 

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key office is Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Significant representation of sovereigns involved in international treaty arbitrations. Also commended for its increasingly active presence in commercial arbitrations. Houses an impressive group of arbitrators and advocates.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They are great lawyers. They are very collaborative and very strong in state arbitration. I would definitely commend them for this area of law."

"They are very professional in the way they handle cases. They have a great deal of experience in investment disputes and that is reflected in their work."

Work highlights Represented the Republic of Korea in its first investment treaty arbitration, a $2.5 billion claim brought under ICSID rules by LSF-KEB Holdings.

Advised the government of Hungary on the annulment phase of an arbitration brought under ICSID rules by Hungarian and UK-based subsidiaries of AES.

Notable practitioners  

Sources say Paolo Di Rosa is "very strong in state arbitration and very easy to work with." One interviewee is quick to praise his client-handling skills: "He really gives us a great deal of comfort and is very good at making us feel confident."

Jean Kalicki recently acted for the Slovak Republic in an UNCITRAL arbitration valued at $334 million. She remains a popular choice among clients, with one noting: "I think she understands what the client is looking for and gives them the level of trust and confidence they need. Her work is of a very high quality, and she is efficient, steely and readily available."

Significant clients Karkey Karadeniz Elektrik Uretim, Republic of Chile, Mercer International, EDF, Daimler Financial Services.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include Texas and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Preeminent oil and gas firm with an impressive nationwide and international presence. Notable advocacy expertise in international arbitration, including cross-examination of witnesses.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"Baker Botts renders a great service. There are several layers of its performance that could be highlighted, but the team's efficiency, knowledge and expertise are the elements that stand out above all."

"I think it's a tremendous firm. It's very strong from top to bottom, and I have the utmost respect for the team."

Notable practitioners  

Sources admire Jennifer Smith's "intellect and technical understanding of the issues that are at the forefront of the energy industry." She is also praised for her ability to "dissect complex concepts and present her arguments based on those concepts in a clear way."

Interviewees consider Michael Lennon to be "a great adviser and strategist," with a particular focus on oil and gas matters. Observers note that he is able to "understand technical matters well enough to be of assistance at the highest level."

Deemed to be "very smart and business savvy" by commentators, Michael Goldberg is also highlighted as being "very good at thinking through the ramifications of a variety of different decisions." He cochairs the firm's international arbitration group.

Significant clients The Russian Federation, Kia Motors, Rocketball, Frontera Resources, Republic of Ecuador.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key office is New York.

What the team is known for Dominant boutique that is highly rated for its dedicated dispute resolution practice. Commended for impressive client service and flexibility, with notable experience in handling Latin America-related matters.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"I have been continually impressed by their dedication, commitment and professionalism - it has been a real pleasure working with them."

"They are very hands-on and the partners are very involved from the beginning of the case, which really sets them apart."

Work highlights Represented the Islamic Republic of Iran in two cases before the Iran-US Claims Tribunal.

Acted for a Brazilian entity in relation to a multifaceted dispute concerning a gasoline blendstocks sales contract.

Notable practitioners  

David Lindsey is rated by commentators as an "outstanding advocate," who "is always available, prompt with his comments, and thorough with his advice." The quality of his client service is widely recognized, as is his experience in working with clients based in, and investing in, Latin America.

James Hosking is "known to provide great client service and advocacy," according to sources. He has impressive experience in handling a range of arbitrations in Latin America, the Asia-Pacific region and Europe.

Yasmine Lahlou's tenacity and skill are commended by sources, who describe her as someone who can "make the best of bad situations." She practiced in Paris before joining the firm, and offers extensive commercial arbitration expertise.

Jennifer Gorskie is singled out as a practitioner who is "firing on all cylinders." Her dedication and commitment to the field are widely recognized, and she is characterized as being "very articulate, very focused and very skilled" as an advocate.

Significant clients American International Group, Cukurova Holding, Samwhan, the Republic of Liberia, Excalibur Ventures.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Strong and experienced group, handling a range of disputes throughout the world. Maintains a well-established reputation in both the Eastern European and Latin American markets.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They have accumulated a huge amount of experience in the arbitration field."

"Whoever you work with, they all maintain the same level of expertise in all fields and you do not get variations. It is really amazing, and quite unique."  

Work highlights Successfully defended the Ministry of Electricity of the Republic of Iraq in a dispute revolving around a breach of contract claim by Vulcan Energy Solutions, worth $27 million.

Obtained an award for affiliate of longstanding client Vale, blocking the payment of $16 million in reimbursable costs claimed by a contractor.

Notable practitioners  

Jeffrey Rosenthal impresses sources with his "excellent cross-examination" skills. He has notable expertise in disputes arbitrated under the auspices of a range of rules, including those of the ICC, the SCC and the LCIA.

Howard Zelbo is particularly noted by clients and peers for his skills in cross-examination, and for his ability to manage a hearing and control its direction. One source described him as "the most astute guy, able to jump from one issue to another, and then come in between and find the weaknesses."

Significant clients The Argentine Republic, the Russian Federation, Telecom Italia International, OAO Tomskneft, DP World.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include Houston, Dallas and New York.

What the team is known for Powerful offering with particular expertise in the energy arena, whose global reach and experience across investor-state and commercial disputes remain notably attractive. Houses a deep bench of increasingly noted attorneys.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"The team is exceptionally adept at analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the client's position and then working with the client to identify a desirable outcome."

Notable practitioners  

Aníbal Martin Sabater is described as a "gifted counselor" with "multilingual skills that are especially helpful." He is also praised by sources for his skill in managing an arbitration tribunal. He is based in the firm's New York office.

Mark Baker is highly praised for the perspective he brings to matters, with sources saying: "He is very thorough in analyzing the situation at hand, and delivering the client a comprehensive set of options." He is the global co-head of the international arbitration team.

Kevin O'Gorman is recognized by commentators as a powerful force in energy arbitrations, where he is described as being "absolutely brilliant." As well as representing clients as counsel, he sits as an arbitrator in a range of disputes.

Significant clients AEI Energy, Baker Hughes, Agbar, Nejapa Power Company, Avánzit SA.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Formidable bench of arbitration specialists, capable of handling commercial and investor-state disputes across a broad spectrum of industries. Also highlighted for its impressive international capabilities.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They are excellent, just absolutely superb - I can't say enough good things about them!"

Work highlights Successfully defended the Republic of Costa Rica in a dispute with German investors regarding measures to protect the leatherback sea turtle taken by the Costa Rican government.

Successfully acted for the Republic of Turkey on defending claims relating to the failed construction of a power plant bought by a Dutch company under the ECT and the Netherlands-Turkey BIT.

Notable practitioners  

Stanimir Alexandrov is rated highly by sources as an arbitrator, where he is "very fair, very even-handed and very invested in the case." His skills as an advocate are also highly praised, with one commentator describing him as "a master strategist and a great speaker; one of the best investment lawyers in the field." 

Louis Kimmelman chairs the firm's global international arbitration practice. His tenacity is highly praised by peers, who describe him as "a great strategist, with excellent execution and significant cross-examination skills." He focuses on complex commercial and investment treaty dispute resolution.

Significant clients Perupetro, the Republic of Peru, Belgian and Luxembourg entities of Lone Star.

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Well-balanced and adept team that offers notably excellent service to its clients. Tackles disputes conducted under a broad spread of arbitral rules, with expertise across both commercial and investment treaty matters.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"Their attorneys are calm, assured professionals who can roll with the punches very well."

"The service is top notch; they do good-quality work, and they do it quickly."

Work highlights Represented Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma in a licensing dispute over the price for the drug REMICADE with Janssen Biotech. After a three-phase hearing in the Hague, the tribunal ruled that the supply price should be lowered and rejected all counterclaims.

On behalf of MatlinPatterson Global Opportunities Partners and MatlinPatterson Global Opportunities Partners (Cayman), the team successfully managed to resist the enforcement of an ICC arbitration award of $55 million from a prior arbitration in Brazil.

Notable practitioners  

Robert Smit is vaunted as both a "remarkably capable" arbitrator and an astute and intelligent advocate. Sources describe him as "someone with a wide range of knowledge about various laws and the ability to understand what is particular about the case at hand." He cochairs the firm's international arbitration department.

Band 3 | WilmerHale

第三等 |

Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for High-quality advocacy and relentless attention to detail are the hallmarks of the firm. Fields an impressively seasoned team with access to a formidable global presence.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They are always on top of their case, and they prepare incredibly well." 

Notable practitioners  

James Carter is a hugely experienced figure in the field, who is lauded as "an icon of the international arbitration Bar." He earns extensive praise for his work both as advocate and arbitrator, and is characterized as "intelligent, well prepared, forceful and convincing."

John Pierce is the leader of the firm's international arbitration practice, and divides his time between the New York and London offices. Sources praise his "very effective and on-point written advocacy."

Rachael Kent is the vice chair of the firm's international arbitration group. Her manner in hearings is described by contemporaries as "elegant but not overstated; she's always right on point and never misses a beat."

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Basic facts about the department
Key office is Miami.

What the team is known for Highly regarded boutique firm offering undoubted skill and experience in handling commercial disputes involving Latin America. Also increasingly recognized for its developing investment treaty capabilities.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They are so professional and so dedicated; they always listen and they always look for a new perspective. They are just fully dedicated to their work."

Work highlights Represented a major US financial organization in an ICC arbitration in equity, regarding a breach of an agreement by a major US investment firm to maximize the return from the sale of the assets of an Ecuadorian financial institution which was deeply indebted to both organizations. The firm secured a major award, and the dismissal of all of the opponent's claims.

Notable practitioners  

Hugely experienced advocate José Astigarraga focuses on handling substantial business disputes. He garners extensive acclaim for his arbitration capabilities, with one source noting: "He manages every single situation, takes everything into account, balances out the issues and knows how to make everything evolve."

Eduardo De la Peña Bernal is described as "an excellent young lawyer who manages civil law concepts with great expertise." He focuses his efforts on advocacy in business-related disputes.

Cristina Cárdenas is an established member of the team, and is well recognized as a dedicated practitioner in the space. She mainly tackles commercial disputes for a range of Latin American and US-based clients.

Significant clients GE, Citibank, GM, CONECEL.

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York, Miami, Chicago, Houston, San Francisco, Palo Alto and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Respected group with a significant nationwide and international reach, housing experienced teams in major markets across the globe. Offers specialist expertise in engineering, construction and oil and gas disputes.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"The team is very responsive and communicative." 

Work highlights Represented Petrobras and BCLC in a dispute with Kellogg, Brown & Root concerning a major offshore development project in Brazil. An award of damages and arbitration costs totaling nearly $200 million was made to BCLC and Petrobras. 

Successfully settled a dispute between client ITR Concession Company and the Indiana Finance Authority on favorable terms.

Notable practitioners  

Grant Hanessian is cochair of the firm's international arbitration group. He is recognized as a powerful advocate for clients, and also maintains a "very collegiate and cooperative" approach in hearings. He is also praised for his practice as arbitrator in a range of disputes.

David Zaslowsky is a key figure in the international arbitration team and acts as both arbitrator and advocate. He centers his practice on commercial arbitration and litigation.

Significant clients Grupo Eulen, Weatherford, Cando Corp, ITR Concession Company.

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Much-admired firm offering specialist representation of sovereign states in investment treaty arbitrations. Also acts for an impressive client base in commercial disputes held under a wide range of institutional rules.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"A very thorough, very tenacious, very careful group of lawyers that really get into the details of a project."

"The service they provide is of the highest quality."  

Work highlights Represented Venezuela in an ICSID arbitration with Mobil and certain subsidiaries relating to claims of expropriation and violation of fair and equitable treatment obligations regarding two petroleum exploration and development projects. 

Represented Turkmenistan in several parallel disputes over the failure to negotiate extensions of contracts and the termination of licenses with MTS and BCTI, two Russian companies which are the primary providers of mobile telecommunications services in the country.

Notable practitioners  

Firm chairman George Kahale has acted as lead counsel in international arbitrations for many years. Sources praise his "laser focus on the right issues and questions," as well as his professional approach and awareness of cultural sensitivities. 

Significant clients The Republic of India, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Uganda, Petroléos de Venezuela, Libya Investment Authority.

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Sustains a strong reputation as a highly experienced team with expertise spanning commercial and investor-state disputes. Particularly active in the energy sector, while also maintaining broad-reaching capabilities across other areas.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"Their work is extremely clear and structured, and they are not overly adversarial in their approach."

Notable practitioners  

Chris Ryan is a partner in the firm's Washington, DC office. He is an experienced litigator and arbitration practitioner, and is commended for his ability to "take extensive documentation and ever-changing legal theories, and then pin down the evidence."

The highly experienced Henry Weisburg is praised by various sources as "a smart and effective lawyer who is very on top of his game." He handles both investor-state and commercial disputes with equal aplomb.

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Commended for its deep-rooted experience in investor-state disputes, while also maintaining a strong commercial arbitration practice. Praised for its seamless approach to matters, with excellent coordination between teams on an international level.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They are extremely good and have a very strong team - they are probably one of the best I've seen when it comes to working together."  

"The way they understand issues is great and the response level and expertise are impeccable."

Work highlights Represented Employ Media in a dispute with ICANN. After the opening submissions in arbitration at the ICC, ICANN agreed to withdraw the notice of breach that it had served.

Notable practitioners  

Arif Ali cochairs the firm's international arbitration practice and is described as a "great advocate, and a very intelligent and knowledgeable international arbitration expert." He has particular experience with arbitrations involving Latin America and the Middle East.

Eric Ordway is a highly experienced member of the firm's international arbitration team, who is praised by peers for his "excellent insight" when handling disputes. He is based in the firm's New York office.

Samaa Haridi has notable expertise in dealing with commercial disputes in the Middle East. She is particularly highly praised for her lucidity and excellent client service, with sources stating that "she is very precise and clear in her legal opinions."

Alexandre de Gramont is a recognized specialist in handling investor-state disputes, whose practice also encompasses commercial arbitrations. He is held in high esteem by market sources for his experience in this arena.

Significant clients Camisea Consortium, H&H Enterprise Investments, the government of Hungary, the government of the Czech Republic. 

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Expanding international arbitration capabilities on a worldwide scale. Undertakes extensive work in projects and energy disputes, and is also noted for its strong Latin America practice.

Work highlights Acted for the claimants in an ICSID arbitration brought against Venezuela. This involved claims of more than $650 million brought under the Swiss-Venezuela BIT.

Notable practitioners  

Mark Beckett is based in the firm's New York office, and is an experienced practitioner in both commercial and investment treaty disputes. He is highly praised by sources for his technical acumen and expertise.

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York, Miami, San Francisco and San Diego.

What the team is known for Remains a major global presence with a broad-based arbitration practice. Particularly recognized for its substantial expertise in handling matters involving Eastern Europe and Russia.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They are real advocates and they delve into the cases and are willing to dig beyond the surface to come up with creative strategies." 

What's new? The team recently grew with the arrival of Cedric Chao from Morrison & Foerster; he joins the San Francisco office as cochair of the international arbitration practice.

Work highlights The team was retained by the Sultanate of Oman in the first ICSID arbitration brought under the US-Oman Free Trade Agreement. The dispute involves a claim for upwards of $560 million by an alleged investor in lease agreements with a state-owned company engaged in limestone quarrying.

Defended Troy University against an ICC arbitration brought by a former partner institution in Vietnam, which was seeking $10 million in damages. The majority of the claims were dismissed, and the final award was a fraction of the original claim.

Notable practitioners  

Cedric Chao is based in the firm's San Francisco office, and mainly handles international commercial arbitrations. Commentators describe him as "a rigorous, creative, problem-solving thinker," and particularly praise his experience with Asian markets. 

Significant clients The Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of Turkey, the Republic of Moldova, Valle Verde Sociedad Financiera, Irving Shipbuilding, Transban Investments.

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Basic facts about the department
Key office is Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Well-established presence representing US and European clients in major international disputes. Key strengths include complex commercial arbitrations and representations in the energy sector.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"The team is excellent; very good advice and very good work."

Work highlights Obtained EUR53 million for Thales in contract cancellation charges in an ICDR arbitration with Globalstar concerning a $1 billion contract. The tribunal simultaneously rejected Globalstar's claim for EUR350 million in damages.

Notable practitioners  

Elliot Polebaum leads the firm's international arbitration practice. He has extensive experience as an advocate and also frequently sits as an arbitrator, and is described as "incredibly able and astute," and "a very talented and excellent counsel."

Significant clients Cerner UK, Dassault Aviation, EDF, France Telecom, GE.

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include Miami, New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Commended for its major global presence and significant market share in this space. Recent expansion in the group's New York office has brought a strong and experienced team of Latin American specialists to the fore, adding to its existing broad-based expertise.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They combine strong legal knowledge with technical support that can help the client better determine the relevant facts and how to present them to serve its purposes."

What's new? The firm's New York office was bolstered by the arrival of Oliver Armas, Luis Enrique Graham and Phoebe Wilkinson from Chadbourne & Parke. 

Work highlights Acted for Pemex Exploración y Producción on defending a petition to confirm an award of $300 million against the company from a Mexican ICC arbitration. The award has been vacated by the Mexican courts.

Represented Venezuela in two ICSID arbitrations related to allegations of having expropriated several Venezuelan companies in the food, fertilizer and coffee industries.

Notable practitioners  

Daniel González's dedication to his craft is often highlighted by sources, with one saying that "he is one of the toughest, most diligent lawyers I've ever met - he really cares about his work." His practice includes a strong focus on handling infrastructure disputes, particularly in construction and telecommunications.

Oliver Armas is a well-respected figure in the firm's New York office and is particularly adept at handling disputes in Latin America. Clients say he is "incredibly well prepared and knows the landscape."

Significant clients Siemens, AES, PDVSA, Sabre, Ford.

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include Chicago and New York.

What the team is known for Strong group of practitioners offering expertise as both advocates and arbitrators. Noted for its particular strength in commercial disputes, and maintains a broad industry footprint.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They are very experienced and think long and deeply about strategy, which is crucial at the beginning of international arbitration. They're also very detail-oriented and comprehensive."

Work highlights Defeated a claim for $140 million in damages against Ritz-Carlton, relating to an ICDR dispute with the owners of a resort in Jamaica.

Notable practitioners  

Lawrence Schaner is praised for the depth of his knowledge in the international arbitration arena, with sources stating: "He understands all the forms and knows everyone in this world." He cochairs the firm's arbitration practice.

Richard Ziegler is described by sources as a practitioner who "sees all angles, leaves no stone unturned and looks at every issue." He is a well-respected advocate and trial lawyer, whose commercial arbitration expertise sees him regularly handle high-value disputes for a range of clients.

Significant clients Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, General Dynamics, Gulfstream Aerospace, IAP Worldwide, Kraft.

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include New York, Los Angeles and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Represents a strong stable of corporate clients in both commercial and investor-state disputes. Particularly praised for its excellent client service and commitment to client business goals.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They actively elicit responses from us about ways to approach things - this serves to sharply focus on what can be done and how to do it in the most efficient and economic way."

"The overall level of service is excellent on all fronts. They understand sophisticated commercial disputes and give constructive advice."

Notable practitioners  

Michael Nolan is a prominent figure in the firm's international arbitration department, and handles both investment treaty and commercial disputes. Sources note that he is "strategic from the standpoint of understanding the big picture," and that he is "an agile courtroom tactician."

Significant clients Brandes Investment Partners, Fraport AG Frankfurt Airport Services Worldwide.

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Basic facts about the department
Key office is Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Maintains significant niche expertise in dealing with political risk and international trade credit insurance disputes, as well as being active in commercial and investor-state dispute practice.

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"Their attorneys are highly responsive and well connected, with good international capabilities."

"I would give them the absolute top marks in relation to their handling of the cases, their knowledge and the resources available to them."

Work highlights Acted for the Republic of the Philippines in a $2.6 billion dispute regarding the building of a light rail system in Manila by Metro Rail Transit, and its leasing and transfer to the government of the Philippines.

Notable practitioners  

Joseph Profaizer is highlighted as an attorney with "very strong analytical skills and substantial experience." He is particularly skilled at handling insurance and investment disputes on a nationwide and international basis.

Significant clients American International Group, Cirebon Electric Power, Marubeni Power International, Kobe Steel, Tricon Energy.

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Basic facts about the department
Key offices include Los Angeles, New York and Washington, DC.

What the team is known for Growing and dynamic team, operating in major commercial, state-to-state and investor-state disputes. Draws on extensive advocacy capabilities while also housing experienced arbitrators. 

Strengths (Quotes mainly from clients)
"They have a big caseload and a very collaborative attitude."  

Work highlights Acted for Churchill Mining in an ICSID arbitration brought against the Republic of Indonesia.

Notable practitioners  

Fred Bennett chairs the US international arbitration practice.

Significant clients Captain Ossama Al-Sharif, Dubai Ports World, Spentex Industries, Spentex Netherlands.

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Basic facts about the department
Key office is New York.

What the team is known for Particularly commended for its longstanding commercial arbitration expertise. Impressive dispute resolution practice also sees it handle investor-state matters and arbitral litigation.

Work highlights Acted for a bank headquartered in Europe on four different ICDR arbitrations involving claims made by Latin American investors relating to the Madoff Ponzi scheme.

Notable practitioners  

Joseph Neuhaus is an active arbitrator and advocate, and leads the firm's arbitration practice. He represents a broad portfolio of clients in relation to commercial and investment treaty disputes.

Other Ranked Lawyers 其他上榜律师

Mark Cymrot of Baker & Hostetler LLP is rated by both peers and clients for his skills as an arbitrator and an advocate. His professionalism is singled out for particular praise, as well as his efficiency in his work and courtroom manner.

Jonathan Schiller is the co-founder and managing partner of Boies, Schiller & Flexner LLP. He has long experience in appearing before arbitration tribunals in a wide range of jurisdictions.  

Ignacio Suarez Anzorena of Clifford Chance US LLP is singled out by sources as a particularly adept practitioner when it comes to pursuing commercial and investor-state arbitrations in Latin America.

George Bermann of Columbia Law School is a hugely experienced arbitrator who has handled disputes across a wide spectrum of industries. Sources praise his deep knowledge of the practice area, as well as his academic excellence. He is also described as a "no-nonsense" arbitrator "who runs a very tight ship."

Daniel Price is a sole practitioner based in Washington, DC. He is an active arbitrator, and is particularly adept with disputes arising from BITs and free trade agreements.

Daniel Tan is the principal of Dan Tan Law, and has tremendous expertise in pursuing arbitrations in Asia. He is particularly praised for his astuteness, with one effusive client saying he is "always two steps ahead of the other side."

Charles Brower of 20 Essex Street is described as a "giant" in the field of international arbitration, and is a hugely experienced, effective and respected arbitrator. "As chair or as a party-appointed arbitrator he will command the respect of others on that panel," said one interviewee.

David Caron of 20 Essex Street is a highly regarded and active arbitrator, as well as the C. William Maxeiner Distinguished Professor of Law at the University of California at Berkeley. He is sought after as an arbitrator for a wide range of disputes.

Ronald Goodman of Foley Hoag LLP is well known for his representation of sovereign states and state-owned industries in international disputes. He has worked extensively with states in Latin America, and is based in the firm's New York office.

Sole practitioner Gerald Aksen "is incredibly practical and incredibly organized, and gets cases handled very efficiently and effectively in a very professional manner," say interviewees. All sources agree that he is "right at the top of his game" as an independent arbitrator based in New York.

Chris Parker of Herbert Smith Freehills is particularly valued by clients for his "knowledgeable, confident and business-minded" approach to dispute resolution. He specializes in advising and representing clients in commercial disputes in the energy and telecom sectors.

Laurence Shore of Herbert Smith Freehills works as both an advocate and an arbitrator, and is qualified to practice in both the USA and UK. Peers say he is "an excellent lawyer who is extremely intelligent and has an enviable light touch."

Horacio Grigera Naón is recognized by sources as an "extremely well-prepared arbitrator, who spans commercial and investor cases very well." He is a former Secretary General of the International Court of Arbitration of the ICC, and sits as an independent arbitrator.

Robert Davidson is noted by sources as an arbitrator who "can really cut through the smoke and mirrors effectively." He is the executive director of JAMS, and has a huge amount of experience as both a sole arbitrator and a panel member.

Steven Smith is based in Jones Day's San Francisco office. He is recognized as an experienced and cooperative advocate, and focuses on handling complex commercial arbitrations.

Claudia Salomon is cochair of Latham & Watkins LLP's international arbitration practice and is based in the New York office. Sources note that they have "confidence in her skillset and experience," and commend her as "an extremely knowledgeable and sophisticated adviser with a balanced approach."

Respected arbitrator Charles Renfrew is based in San Francisco. He is widely known and respected for his experience and judgment, and is recognized as an "effective and insightful" arbitrator.

Mark Kantor is a veteran arbitrator who operates his own practice in Washington, DC. He is well known and respected in the industry, with one source describing him as "a very important player."

Jeffrey Sarles is a senior member of the international arbitration team at Mayer Brown LLP, based in Chicago. He is an active figure in both arbitrations and appellate work.

William Knull of Mayer Brown LLP specializes in handling commercial disputes in the oil and gas industry, and has experience of such matters in the Middle East and Latin America. He is cochair of the firm's international arbitration group, and is well recognized as a skillful and effective advocate. 

Philip Allen Lacovara of Mayer Brown LLP is an arbitrator who is highly praised by sources for his insight into difficult issues, and his thoroughness when handling a dispute. Sources note that "his questions are excellent and on-point."

Allen Green of McKenna Long & Aldridge LLP is rated by sources as a "very sophisticated and charismatic" practitioner, and as a "very comforting choice when you have a big case." He is based in Washington, DC and specializes in arbitrations involving sovereign entities.

The "extremely capable" William O’Brien is based in McKenna Long & Aldridge LLP's Washington, DC office, and represents clients in commercial disputes and cases relating to complex government contracts. He was rated by sources as "a very good writer and trial lawyer who is very good at cross-examination."

Oscar Garibaldi is an independent arbitrator based in Maryland. He is highly regarded for his knowledge and experience in arbitrations, and is widely recognized as a major figure in the field. Sources highlight his "complete knowledge of international arbitration, both commercial and investor-state disputes."

Kenneth Reisenfeld chairs the international arbitration and dispute resolution practice at Patton Boggs LLP. He is active both as an arbitrator and as counsel, and is described by sources as "just brilliant - very detail-oriented and thorough."

Christopher Boehning is a partner in Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP's New York office and handles civil and commercial litigation as well as representing clients in arbitrations. He is valued by clients as being "very thoughtful and very reasoned - he can really step back and see the big picture."

Judd Kessler of Porter Wright Morris & Arthur LLP is recognized by peers as a meticulous arbitrator who is particularly skilled at handling investor-state disputes. He is widely praised for his "immense tact and sensitivity and thoroughly good manner."

Peter Sherwin heads the international arbitration practice at Proskauer Rose LLP and is highlighted by sources as a "very smooth and effective advocate." He specializes in cross-border commercial disputes in a variety of industries.

Jan Paulsson of Three Crowns LLP is rated as an "exceptional" arbitrator. He is widely lauded as a global expert on a broad range of international arbitration matters, and draws on extensive experience in this space.

James Loftis leads the international dispute resolution practice at Vinson & Elkins RLLP, and primarily represents clients in disputes related to energy, infrastructure, development and construction. His clients say he is "responsive, accurate, hard-working and highly experienced."

William Park is a sole arbitrator and professor of law at Boston University. He is singled out for his impressive command of commercial and international law issues, with particular emphasis placed on his skill in arbitrating commercial disputes. He is widely recognized as a significant figure in both US and European arbitrations.

Mark Bravin cochairs the international arbitration practice at Winston & Strawn LLP and is based in Washington, DC. He is well regarded for his excellent handling of enforcement proceedings and arbitrations, and is praised for his "very thorough and well thought-out strategy."

Michael Reisman of Yale Law School is the president of the Arbitration Tribunal of the Bank for International Settlements, and is a widely published authority on the subject of international dispute resolution. Sources note that "his judgments are a work of art - just fantastic."

Foreign Experts

Foreign Experts are individuals with expertise in a different jurisdiction to the one they are based in. These individuals are particularly highly regarded for international and cross-border work. Usually, they will be identified in the jurisdiction in which they are based and in their country of expertise.

Senior Statesman

A 'Senior Statesman' is a lawyer who no longer works hands-on with the same intensity but who, by virtue of close links with major clients, remains pivotal to the firm’s success.

Eminent Practitioners

'Eminent Practitioners' are highly influential lawyers in a particular practice area who, due to managerial or client relationship commitments, are less active in day-to-day work but remain key players in the team.

Other Noted Practitioners

Other Noted Practitioners are individuals who have not yet been ranked but are seen to be active and accomplished in this area of law.

Other Noted Firms

Other Noted Firms are firms that have not yet been ranked but are seen to be active and accomplished in this area of law.